Items tagged “stroke”

39 results found
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Brain arterial vascular territories

An understanding of brain arterial vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organized organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth...
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Middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct

The middle cerebral artery territory is the most commonly affected territory in a cerebral infarction, due to the size of the territory and the direct flow from the internal carotid artery into the middle cerebral artery, providing the easiest path for thromboembolism. Clinical presentation Th...
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Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarct

Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarcts arise, as the name says, from occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery. It is a type of posterior circulation infarction. Epidemiology Posterior cerebral artery strokes are believed to comprise approximately 5-10% of ischemic strokes 6. Clinical pres...
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Weber syndrome

Weber syndrome is a midbrain stroke syndrome that involves the cerebral peduncle and the ipsilateral fascicles of the oculomotor nerve 1-3,5. Occasionally the substantia nigra can also be involved 5.  Clinical presentation ipsilateral CN III palsy diplopia ptosis  afferent pupillary defect ...
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Hyperdense MCA sign (brain)

The hyperdense MCA sign, also known as Gács sign, is a type of hyperdense vessel sign and refers to focal hyperattenuation of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on non-contrast brain CT and is due to intraluminal thromboembolic material. It is the earliest visible sign of MCA infarction and is see...
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Lateral medullary syndrome

Lateral medullary syndrome, also known as Wallenberg syndrome, is a clinical syndrome caused by acute ischemia or infarction of the lateral medulla oblongata due to occlusion of the intracranial portion of the vertebral artery, PICA or its branches 1-3.  Epidemiology 20% of ischemic strokes oc...
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Pontine hemorrhage

Pontine hemorrhages are a common form of intracerebral hemorrhage, and usually are a result of poorly controlled long-standing hypertension, although also have other causes. When due to chronic hypertension, the stigmata of chronic hypertensive encephalopathy are often present (see cerebral micr...
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Cerebellar hemorrhage

Cerebellar hemorrhages are a common form of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and usually occur due to poorly controlled long-standing hypertension, although other causes also exist. When due to chronic hypertension, the stigmata of chronic hypertensive encephalopathy are often present (see: cerebr...
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Ischemic stroke

Ischemic stroke is an episode of neurological dysfunction due to focal infarction in the central nervous system attributed to arterial thrombosis, embolization, or critical hypoperfusion. While ischemic stroke is formally defined to include brain, spinal cord, and retinal infarcts 1, in common u...
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Cerebellar infarction

Cerebellar infarction is a relatively uncommon subtype of ischemic stroke. It may involve any of the three arteries supplying the cerebellum: superior cerebellar artery (SCA): superior cerebellar arterial infarct anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA): anterior inferior cerebellar arterial...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) infarct

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) occlusion may cause infarction of any part of the vascular territory of the PICA, namely the posterior inferior cerebellum, inferior cerebellar vermis, and lateral medulla. Epidemiology Typically considered the most common territory involved in cereb...
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CT angiographic spot sign (intracerebral hemorrhage)

The spot sign is a CTA sign in acute intracerebral hemorrhage representing the focal accumulation/pooling/extravasation of contrast containing blood within the hematoma. It is an important feature to identify during the evaluation of acute intracerebral hemorrhage as it significantly increases t...
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CT perfusion in ischemic stroke

CT perfusion in ischemic stroke has become established in most centers with stroke services as an important adjunct, along with CT angiography (CTA), to conventional unenhanced CT brain imaging. It enables the differentiation of salvageable ischemic brain tissue (the penumbra) from the irrevoca...
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Benedikt syndrome

Benedikt syndrome, or paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a midbrain stroke syndrome that involves the fascicles of the oculomotor nerve and the red nucleus. Clinical presentation ipsilateral CN III palsy 1-4 crossed hemiataxia 1-4 crossed choreoathetosis 1-4 Pathology It is usually caused by...
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Brainstem stroke syndromes

Brainstem stroke syndromes, also known as crossed brainstem syndromes, refer to a group of syndromes that occur secondary to lesions, most commonly infarcts, of the brainstem. Epidemiology Although many different brainstem stroke syndromes have been classically described, the majority appear e...
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Medial medullary syndrome

Medial medullary syndrome, also known as Déjerine syndrome,  is secondary to thrombotic or embolic occlusion of small perforating branches from vertebral or proximal basilar artery supplying the medial aspect of medulla oblongata1,2. Epidemiology Represents less than 1% of brainstem stroke syn...
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Claude syndrome

Claude syndrome is one of the brainstem stroke syndromes in which there is infarction of the dorsomedial aspect of the midbrain. Clinical presentation Clinical picture is characteristic and includes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and contralateral upper and lower limb ataxia 1-4. Patholog...
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Inferior medial pontine syndrome

Inferior medial pontine syndrome, also known as Foville syndrome, is one of the brainstem stroke syndromes occurring when there is infarction of the medial inferior aspect of the pons due to occlusion of the paramedian branches of the basilar artery 1-3. This infarction involves the following 1-...
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Lateral pontine syndrome

Lateral pontine syndrome, also known as Marie-Foix syndrome or Marie-Foix-Alajouanine syndrome, refers to one of the brainstem stroke syndromes of the lateral aspect of the pons. Clinical presentation There is a characteristic clinical presentation 1,2,4: ipsilateral limb ataxia: cerebellar ...
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Hemimedullary syndrome

Hemimedullary syndrome, also known as Reinhold syndrome, occurs as a result of the occlusion of the ipsilateral vertebral artery proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and its anterior spinal artery branches 1-3. This situation causes lateral medullary infarct and medial medullary ...