Items tagged “stub”

1,173 results found


The urethra is the terminal segment of the genitourinary system. Because of vastly different anatomy between the sexes, male and female urethras are discussed separately: female urethra male urethra

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of lung

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the lung is a type of non-small cell lung cancer. They are classified under lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type. Primary occurrence in the lung parenchyma is rare, while in the thorax they occur more commonly as adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tracheobron...

Pseudotumour of the calcaneus

Pseudotumour of the calcaneus is a normal variation of the trabecular pattern of the calcaneus on plain radiography secondary to atrophic trabeculae. This condition is one of the skeletal "do not touch" lesions which can mimic a tumour-like (e.g. calcaneal lipoma) or a cyst-like (e.g. calcaneal...

Randall's plaques

Randall's plaques are described as subepithelial calcification of the renal papilla 1 which are <2 mm in their greatest dimension. They act as an anchor for calcium oxalate crystals and are considered to be predisposing factor for renal stone formation.  Clinical presentation Usually asymptoma...

Conjoint tendon

The conjoint tendon forms when the medial fibres of the internal oblique aponeurosis unite with the deeper fibres of the transversus abdominis aponeurosis. The conjoint tendon then turns inferiorly and attaches onto the pubic crest and pecten pubis 1. It forms part of the posterior wall of the i...

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of lung

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of lung is a very rare type of lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type. Pathology Diagnosis is based on the identification of myoepithelial cells, with spindle cells, clear cells, or plasmacytoid differentiation or a mixture of phenotypes, along with a var...


The jejunum is arbitrarily defined as the proximal two-fifths of the small intestine and is, on average, ~300 cm in length. Gross anatomy The primary method of evaluation of the small bowel is small bowel follow-through examination (SBFT). On SBFT, the jejunum has a delicate feathery appearanc...

Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis

Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis take place in a number of predictable steps.  Fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was well underway by the age of 15 years and is complete by 17-18 years.  Fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly. Persistence of a ...

Blumensaat line

Blumensaat line is the line drawn along the roof of the intercondylar notch of the femur as seen on lateral radiograph of the knee joint. It can been used for: indicating the relative position of the patella as normally this line intersects the lower pole of the patella suggesting ACL injury a...

Squamous dysplasia of lung

Squamous dysplasia (SD) of lung is a type of preinvasive lung lesion and is considered a precursor to bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma. It is sometimes considered a low end of the spectrum of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of lung 2.

Semimembranosus muscle

The semimembranosus is one of the hamstring muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh and accompanies the semitendinosus muscle in the medial aspect of the posterior thigh. It is named for its flattened membranous tendon of its ischial attachment. Summary origin: ischial tuberosity in...

Heterogeneous testicular echotexture

Heterogeneous testicular echotexture at ultrasound may be the result of a variety of underlying pathology: seminiferous tubular atrophy - can occur in around 14% of middle aged to elderly patients 2 testicular trauma orchitis

Flexor retinaculum at the ankle

Flexor retinaculum at the ankle is formed by reinforcement of the deep fascia of the leg by transverse collagen bundles and functions to prevent 'bowstringing' of tendons as they pass the tibiotalar joint. It forms the roof of the tarsal tunnel 1, 2. insertions medial malleolus of the tibia m...

McBurney's point

McBurney's point is defined as a point that lies one-third of distance laterally on a line drawn from the umbilicus to the right anterior superior iliac spine. Classically, it corresponds to the location of the base of the appendix 1. Clinically, McBurney's point is relevant for the elicitation...

Anterior knee fat pads

There are three anterior knee fat pads 1: infrapatellar fat pad (of Hoffa) fills the space between the patella ligament and the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia 2 posterior suprapatellar (prefemoral or supratrochlear) fat pad anterior suprapatellar (quadriceps) fat pad fills the spa...

Windsock sign (duodenal web)

The windsock sign is a typical appearance of a duodenal web (intraluminal duodenal diverticulum) on upper gastrointestinal contrast series which consists of an intraduodenal barium-contrast filled sac that is surrounded by a narrow lucent line (web or intraluminal mucosal diaphragm) which is wel...

Doughnut sign on bone scan

The doughnut sign refers to the bone scan pattern whereby there is increased uptake peripherally with a photopenic centre. This appearance may be seen in a number of cystic lesions including: aneurysmal bone cyst giant cell tumour simple bone cyst The doughnut sign is a non-specific sign, an...

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the lung is a considered a preinvasive type of non-small cell lung cancer.  In some situations, this histology can also be found around the bronchial stump margin after resection of bronchial cancer, when there is presence of CIS on histology in a bronch...

Primary idiopathic hypothyroidism with thyroid atrophy

Primary idiopathic hypothyroidism with thyroid atrophy (or Ord disease) is one of the causes of hypothyroidism. Some authors consider this entity as being on the same spectrum as Hashimoto disease while others consider it as distinct entities. Radiographic features Ultrasound The thyroid glan...

Posterior lumbar subcutaneous oedema

Posterior lumbar subcutaneous oedema is a very frequent finding on MRI of spine. A clinical correlation is almost always required to identify the significance of this. Pathology Causes overweight (raised BMI) age (advancing age) sex (more common in females) posterior compartment degenerati...

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