Logopaenic dementia is a subtype of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), which itself is a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
Pulmonary mesenchymal cystic hamartomas (PMHCs) are a rare subtype of pulmonary hamartomas.
They usually comprise of multiple bilateral cysts and nodules. The cyst walled are lined with normal respiratory epithelium and the nodules are permeated by scattered airways that were also li...
Intrapulmonary lymph nodes are a type of intrathoracic lymph nodes. They can be quite common on routine CT examinations of healthy patients.
perifissural lung nodules 2
CT: HRCT chest
range around 6mm in size (usually reported range around 3-8.5 mm) 1
A cyamella is a rare sesamoid bone that exists as a normal variant within the popliteus tendon, characteristically located at the lateral aspect of the distal femur in the popliteal groove.
It is seen more commonly in less advanced primates 3, and a high proportion of dogs and cats 4.
The 5-F rule refers to risk factors for the development of cholelithiasis in an event of upper abdominal pain:
fair: more prevalent in Caucasian population 1
fat: BMI >30
fertile: one or more children
forty: age ≥40
cholelithiasis can occur in young patients with a positiv...
The supraoptic recess is a small angular recess or diverticulum that sits at the junction of the floor and anterior wall of the third ventricle, immediately above the optic chiasm.
When the third ventricle is expanded due to hydrocephalus (e.g. aqueduct stenosis) this recess,...
The median aperture (of Magendie) is one of the foramina in the ventricular system and links the fourth ventricle and the cisterna magna. Along with the lateral apertures (of Luschka) it makes up one of the three ways that CSF can leave the fourth ventricle and enter the subarachnoid space.
The foramen of Magendie (also called median aperture) is one of the foramina in the ventricular system and links the fourth ventricle and the quadrigeminal cistern. It is one of the three ways that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can leave the fourth ventricle and enter the subarachnoid space.
The styloid apparatus, found within the parapharyngeal space, refers to the structures derived from the 2nd branchial arch along with associated ligaments and muscles:
styloid process of the temporal bone
lesser horn of the hyoid bone
Liddle's syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition which inhibits the normal degradation of the ENaC sodium channel, resulting in findings that mimic Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism); hypernatraemia, hypokalaemia and elevated serum bicarbonate. Typically patients are asymptomatic other tha...
Pepper syndrome is of interest only (the term is not readily used in day-to-day practice), and refers to primary adrenal neuroblastoma with extensive liver metastases 1. In essence, it refers to stage 4S neuroblastoma (see staging of neuroblastoma).
The coronal suture is the cranial suture formed between the two parietal bones and the frontal bone. At the junction of coronal, sagittal and frontal sutures is the anterior fontanelle which is open at birth and usually fuses at around 18-24 months after birth.
Fusion of the coronal suture occu...
The indusium griseum is a thin layer of grey matter which covers the superior surface of the corpus callosum, extending from the paraterminal gyrus anteriorly to the dentate gyrus and hippocampus posteriorly via the fyrus fasciolaris. It has four longitudinal bundles (medial and lateral longitud...
The extreme capsule is a series of white matter tracts in the brain that run between the claustrum and insular cortex.
The forceps major, also known as the posterior forceps, is a fibre bundle which connects the occipital lobes and crosses the midline via the splenium of the corpus callosum.
The forceps minor, also known as the anterior forceps, is a fibre bundle which connects the lateral and medial surfaces of the frontal lobes and crosses the midline via the genu of the corpus callosum.
The so-called paraphysis elements are embryonic structures which appears like a thin strand between telencephalon and the anterior portions of diencephalon 1. It is believed to the be structure which results in colloid cysts of the third ventricle.
The stria medullaris is a fiber bundle containing efferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, and anterior thalamic nuclei to the habenula. It forms a horizontal ridge on the medial surface of the thalamus.
Wilson Mikity syndrome (WMS) refers to chronic lung disease in premature infants, characterized by early development of cystic interstitial emphysema (PIE). This is now sometimes considered as part of the spectrum of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
chronic pulmonary insufficiency of prema...
Oro-antral fistula (OAF) is a pathological communication between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus (antrum).
There is a slightly greater male predilection 2.
Oro-antral fistulas may be subtyped by location into: