Items tagged “summary”

171 results found

Proximal radial fracture (summary)

Proximal radial fractures are the commonest elbow injury in adult patients and the injury most likely to cause an elbow joint effusion. Radial head and neck fractures are often subtle and may be occult on initial imaging. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you c...

Scaphoid fracture (summary)

Scaphoid fractures are the second commonest group of fractures that are seen following a fall onto an outstretched hand and result in wrist pain, specifically tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox. They are particularly important because of the risk of avascular necrosis if displaced fractures a...

Proximal humeral fracture (summary)

Proximal humeral fractures are a heterogeneous group of fractures that include everything from relatively simple transverse fractures of the surgical neck of humerus, to complex, displaced, multi-part fractures of the proximal humerus that extend into the shoulder joint. The shoulder is a hugely...

Distal radial fracture (summary)

Distal radial fractures are a relatively common group of injuries that usually occur following a fall. The commonest of these fractures is a transverse extra-articular fracture and where there is associated dorsal angulation, this is termed a Colles fracture. Reference article This is a summar...

Forearm fracture (summary)

Forearm fractures are a group of fractures that occur in the forearm following trauma. The radius and ulna are bound together at the proximal and distal radioulnar joints and act as a ring. Like elsewhere in the body, it is difficult to only fracture one bone if there is a bony ring. If the radi...

Humeral shaft fracture (summary)

Humeral shaft fractures are readily diagnosed and do not usually require internal fixation.  Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more in-depth reference article: humeral shaft fracture. Summary anatomy normal humerus epidemiology 3-5% of fra...

Investigating shoulder injury (summary)

Shoulder injury is a relatively uncommon, but important cause for presentation to the Emergency Department. Pain may be the result of acute or chronic injury.  Summary assessment history history of trauma? previous injury? examination pain - location, type range of motion at the shoulder...

Investigating fall onto an outstretched hand (summary)

Fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH) is a very common presentation across all ages. It occurs following sporting injuries, or simply after a fall.  Summary assessment history bimodal age and sex presentation young patients - high energy trauma older patients - lower energy, e.g. simple f...

Pelvic fractures (summary)

Pelvic fractures are a heterogeneous group of injuries that can occur secondary to a variety of mechanisms that range from an innocuous simple fall to severe high-energy trauma in a road traffic collision. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more i...

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (summary)

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE), also known as a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE),  is a relatively common condition affecting the physis of the proximal femur in adolescents. It is one of commonest hip abnormalities in adolescence and is bilateral in around 20% of cases. Referen...

Perthes disease (summary)

Perthes disease is the name given to idiopathic AVN (avascular necrosis) of the femoral epiphysis in children. It most often occurs in children around the age of 5-6 years and is one of the common considerations when children present with an atraumatic limp or hip pain. Reference article This ...

Bowel perforation (summary)

Bowel perforation is an acute surgical emergency where there is a release of gastric or intestinal contents into the peritoneal space. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary epidemiology depends on cause presentation history ...

Acute pancreatitis (summary)

Acute pancreatitis refers to acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on acute pancreatitis. Summary epidemiology epidemiology is dependent on the cause of pancreatitis gallston...

Appendicitis (summary)

Appendicitis occurs when there is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition and is a major cause of abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis although its use should be limited because of the radiation dose required ...

Abdominal radiology for students (curriculum)

Abdominal radiology curriculum for medical students is broadly split into content that refers to imaging (the test and findings) and conditions that are considered key for this stage of training. Some non-abdominal conditions are included in this portion of the curriculum, including breast dise...

Acute cholecystitis (summary)

Acute cholecystitis refers to the acute inflammation of the gallbladder. It is the primary complication of cholelithiasis and the most common cause of acute pain in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on acute cholecystitis. Su...

Diverticulitis (summary)

Diverticulitis is one of the presentations of diverticular disease and is most often a complication of colonic diverticulosis. Differentiating one from the other is critical since uncomplicated diverticulosis is mostly asymptomatic and acute diverticulitis is a potentially life-threatening illne...

Colorectal cancer (summary)

Colorectal cancer, also called colorectal carcinoma (CRC), is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year ...

Small bowel obstruction (summary)

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction; the remaining 20% result from large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of 5.5%. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on small bowel obstruction. Summary epidemiol...

Large bowel obstruction (summary)

Large bowel obstruction (LBO) occurs when there is mechanical obstruction of the large bowel and is often impressive on imaging on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.  Reference article This is a summary articl...

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