Items tagged “testis”

25 results found
Article

Testicular cancer (staging)

The staging for testicular tumors is performed according to the TNM system with staging groupings. It can be remembered in its abbreviated form as:  stage I: confined to testis, epididymis, spermatic cord, scrotum stage II: lymph nodes involved but no distant metastases and serum tumor markers...
Article

Unilateral testicular lesions

The differential diagnosis for unilateral testicular lesions is wide-ranging.  Neoplastic Common seminoma (40-50% of testicular malignancies) non-seminomatous germ cell tumors: testicular teratoma testicular epidermoid (teratoma with ectodermal elements only) testicular choriocarcinoma t...
Article

Paratesticular lesions

Paratesticular lesions have a long list of differential diagnoses: neoplastic benign epididymal cyst (most common epididymal mass) scrotal tunica cysts tunica vaginalis cyst tunica albuginea cyst spermatic cord lipoma scrotal hemangioma: is often hypervascular on color Doppler, unlike ot...
Article

Scrotolith

Scrotoliths, also known as scrotal pearls, are benign incidental extratesticular macrocalcifications within the scrotum. They frequently occupy the potential space of the tunica vaginalis or sinus of the epididymis. They are usually of no clinical significance 1,2. Epidemiology The prevalence ...
Article

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancers are the most common malignancy in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years. Epidemiology Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2. The commonest histology of the tumor varies with the age of affected individuals. Over 90...
Article

Paratesticular tumors

A paratesticular mass may derive from a number of structures that surround the testis within the scrotum; most commonly, they derive from the spermatic cord.  Pathology The masses can be categorized as benign (70%) or malignant (30%). Etiology Benign spermatic cord lipoma (most common parat...
Article

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when a testis torts on the spermatic cord resulting in the cutting off of blood supply. The most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause, a bell-clapper deformity. The diagnosis is often made clinically but if it is in doubt, an ultr...
Article

Testicular cyst

Simple testicular cysts are usually nonpalpable and thus are detected incidentally. Radiographic features Ultrasound well-marginated imperceptible wall anechoic with posterior acoustic enhancement no flow on color Doppler MRI follows the signal characteristics of fluid on all pulse seque...
Article

Tubular ectasia of rete testis

Tubular ectasia of rete testis (rare plural: retia testes 8) represents dilated testicular mediastinal tubules.  Epidemiology This condition is more common in men over the age of 55 years. It is often bilateral, is frequently associated with spermatoceles and may occur as result of a vasectom...
Article

Testicular yolk sac tumor

Testicular yolk sac tumor, also known as endodermal sinus tumor of the testis, is the most common childhood testicular tumor (80%), with most cases occurring before the age of two years 1. In adults, pure yolk sac tumor is extremely rare, however mixed germ cell tumor is commonly seen. Patholog...
Article

Scrotum

The scrotum (plural: scrota or scrotums) is a dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle that contains the testes, epididymides, and spermatic cord. It consists of two chambers separated by a septum. It is an extension of the perineum and is located between the penis and anus. Gross anatomy...
Article

Testis

The testes (singular: testis), also known as the testicles, are the male gonads and are contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. Terminology The term testis (plural testes) is preferred by the Terminologia Anatomica, over testicle. ...
Article

Polyorchidism

Polyorchidism, also known as supernumerary testes, refers to the presence of more than two testes and is a very rare congenital anomaly. The supernumerary testis can be usually located inside the scrotum (75% of the patients) or less commonly in the inguinal canal, the retroperitoneum, or the ab...
Article

Testicular appendix

A testicular appendix (alternatively called appendix of testis or appendix testis, and historically also known as hydatid of Morgagni) represents a developmental remnant of the paramesonephric duct (Müllerian duct) which is situated in the upper pole of the testis inside a groove between the tes...
Article

Fibrous pseudotumor of the scrotum

Fibrous pseudotumor of the scrotum is a relatively rare, non-neoplastic extratesticular non-epididymal lesion. Epidemiology It affects any age. Although rare, it is considered the third most common extra testicular mass after a scrotal lipoma and an epididymal adenomatoid tumor.  Risk factors...
Article

Leydig cell tumor of the testis

A Leydig cell tumor of the testis is an uncommon testicular neoplasm. Its imaging appearance on ultrasound and MRI is nonspecific, but clinically it is associated with serum hormonal imbalance. Epidemiology 1-3% of all testicular tumors, but the most common sex-cord stromal tumor. Tend to be b...
Article

Burned-out testis tumor

Burned-out testis tumors may be present if there is metastatic retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, but the primary testicular tumor is a relatively occult, scarred intratesticular focus. Approximately 50% of the "burned-out" tumors continue to harbor malignant cells. Pathology Retroperitoneal ger...
Article

Cystadenoma of the rete testis

Cystadenoma of the rete testis is a rare cystic testicular tumor. It does not have specific imaging features, but may be suggested in the differential of a large multiloculated cystic tumor involving the testis. It cannot be radiologically differentiated from cystadenocarcinoma. Epidemiology R...
Article

Cystadenocarcinoma of the rete testis

Cystadenocarcinoma of the rete testis is the malignant version of cystadenoma of the rete testis.   Epidemiology Primarily a disease of older men (>60 years old), but has been noted in a wide age range (8-91 years). Pathology Histologic evaluation requires exclusion of malignant mesothelioma...
Article

Splenogonadal fusion

Splenogonadal fusion is a rare anomaly that occurs when there is congenital fusion between a portion of the spleen and a gonad or other mesonephric derivative. Epidemiology Much more common in male patients (~95%), occurs most commonly on the left (98%) and usually involves the testis (95%). H...