Items tagged “thyroid”

28 results found
Article

Papillary thyroid cancer

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland, and frequently has nodal metastases at presentation. Epidemiology Papillary thyroid cancer (as is the case with follicular thyroid cancer) typically occurs in the middle-aged, with a peak incidence in the 3rd...
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Thyroid cancer (staging)

Successful treatment of thyroid cancer highly depends on accurate preoperative staging. Ultrasound and ultrasound-guided FNA or core biopsy remain the investigation of choice for diagnosing primary thyroid malignancies. CT and MRI are inferior to ultrasound for characterizing thyroid nodules, h...
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Assessment of thyroid lesions (general)

Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic / colloid nodule / nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare carcinoma papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 10-20% medullary: 5% anaplastic: 1-2% thyroi...
Article

Thyroidea ima artery

The thyroidea ima artery is an uncommon variant of the blood supply to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland. It is reported in ~7.5% (range 1.5-12.2%) of individuals and can arise from: brachiocephalic trunk right common carotid artery aortic arch internal thoracic artery The thyroidea ...
Article

Follicular thyroid cancer

Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most frequent malignancy of the thyroid gland after papillary cancer and accounts for ≈10-20% of all thyroid neoplasms.  Epidemiology It typically occurs in women and in an older age group than papillary (i.e. 40-60 years of age). Pathology Un...
Article

Congenital hypothyroidism (mnemonic)

The features of an infant with congenital hypothyroidism can be recalled with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pot belly P: pallor P: puffy face P: protruding umbilicus P: poked out tongue
Article

Medullary thyroid carcinoma

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a subtype of thyroid cancer which accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid malignancies. It occurs both sporadically (80%) and as a familial form (see associations). Epidemiology In non-familial case, it typically peaks in the 3rd to 4th decades. Pathology Thoug...
Article

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive form of thyroid cancer and accounts for ~1-2% of primary thyroid malignancies. Of all the subtypes, this carries the worst prognosis. Epidemiology Typically occurs in the elderly (peak incidence in 6th to 7th decades). A significant pro...
Article

Lingual thyroid

A lingual thyroid is a specific type of ectopic thyroid and results from the lack of normal caudal migration of the thyroid gland. NB: Location at the base of the tongue aside, the information in this article can relate to any ectopic thyroid tissue. Epidemiology The condition is congenital a...
Article

Graves disease

Graves disease (in mainland Europe it is called Basedow disease 9) is an autoimmune thyroid disease and is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis (up to 85%). Epidemiology There is a strong female predilection with an F:M ratio of at least 5:1. It typically presents in middle age. Clinical p...
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Wave sign

The wave sign refers to the indentation of the normal thymus in young children by the ribs, resulting in a wavy border.
Article

Zuckerkandl tubercle

Zuckerkandl tubercle is a normal variant of the thyroid and may be mistaken for a thyroid nodule, mass or lymph node. It is a projection of normal thyroid tissue from the posterior aspect of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland.  The tubercle is also an important surgical landmark due to its ...
Article

Colloid nodule (thyroid)

Colloid nodules are non-neoplastic benign nodules occurring within the thyroid gland. They form the vast majority of nodular thyroid disease. Pathology Colloid nodules are composed of irregularly enlarged follicles containing abundant colloid. Some colloid nodules can be cystic (cystic colloid...
Article

Multinodular goiter

Multinodular goiter (commonly abbreviated to MNG) is defined as an enlarged thyroid gland (i.e. goiter) due to multiple nodules which may have normal, decreased or increased function.  Terminology When increased activity and hyperthyroidism are present then the condition is referred to a toxic...
Article

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis is rare and may occur in patients with pre-existing thyroid disease and through complications of thyrotoxicosis (e.g. cardiac arrhythmia) may be fatal. Patients with a normal thyroid gland are unaffected.  Patients with existing thyrotoxicosis should no...
Article

Goiter

Goiter (rarely thyromegaly) refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can occur from multiple conditions. Clearly the absence of thyroid enlargement does not preclude significant thyroid pathology. The definition of a goiter depends on age and sex; below are the upper limits of normal for ...
Article

Gene expression classifier

A gene expression classifier (GEC) test is a developing technology in the analysis of indeterminate thyroid nodules, using cells from a fine needle aspiration. The most common commercially available GEC in the United States is known as AFIRMA. The test is designed to use molecular markers to he...
Article

Heterogeneous thyroid echotexture

Heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid gland is a non-specific finding and is associated with conditions diffusely affecting the thyroid gland. These include: Hashimoto thyroiditis Graves disease
Article

Thyroid lymphoma

Thyroid lymphoma is rare, accounting for a minority of both thyroid malignancies and lymphoma in general.  The thyroid may be affected primarily or secondary to lymphoma elsewhere. This article is concerned with primary thyroid lymphoma.  Epidemiology Thyroid lymphoma accounts for <5% of thyr...
Article

Assessment of thyroid lesions (ultrasound)

Ultrasound along with nuclear medicine, is an important modality for assessment of thyroid lesions, and it is also frequently used to guide biopsy. Diagnostic criteria for thyroid nodules continue to evolve with improving ultrasound technology. Radiographic features Ultrasound Calcification ...

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