Items tagged “ultrasound”

489 results found
Article

Bicornuate uterus

A bicornuate uterus is a type of uterine duplication anomaly. It can be classified as a class IV Mullerian duct anomaly. Epidemiology Overall, congenital uterine anomalies occur in ~1.5% of females (range 0.1-3%). Bicornuate uteri are thought to represent ~25% (range 10-39%) of Mullerian duct ...
Article

Cervical ectopic pregnancy

Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare subtype of ectopic pregnancy, in which a gestational sac is seen at the endocervical canal below the closed internal os. Epidemiology  It accounts for ~0.15-1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Pathology Implantation of the fertilized ovum occurs within the cer...
Article

Echogenic fetal bowel

Echogenic fetal bowel is an observation in antenatal ultrasound imaging, in which fetal bowel appears to be brighter than it is supposed to be. It is a soft marker for trisomy 21 and has several other associations. When observed, it needs to be interpreted in the context of other associated abno...
Article

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
Article

Gestational trophoblastic disease

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) results from the abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, including 14: tumor-like lesions exaggerated placental site reaction placental site nodule and plaque abnormal (non-molar) villous lesions mol...
Article

Lemon sign

The lemon sign, noted on antenatal imaging, is one of the many notable fruit-inspired signs. It is a feature when there appears to be an indentation of the frontal bone (depicting that of a lemon). It is classically seen as a sign of a Chiari II malformation and also seen in the majority (90-98%...
Article

Long head of biceps brachii tendon pathology

Long head of biceps brachii tendon pathology can be examined both with ultrasound and/or MRI. Both instability and tears can result in pain and decreased function.  Clinical presentation Clinical tests Speed test (shoulder) Pathology Long head of biceps can be affected by numerous pathologi...
Article

Lymph node levels of the neck

The lymph nodes in the neck have historically been divided into at least six anatomic neck lymph node levels for the purpose of head and neck cancer staging and therapy planning. Differing definitions exist across specialties 1-4. The following is a synthesis of radiologically useful boundaries ...
Article

Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors

Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs) are one of the main groups of germ cell tumors (the other being seminoma). Although they are made up of distinct histological entities, in general, they have similar radiographic appearances. They can, however, be found widely in the body, with variable...
Article

Nuchal fold

The nuchal fold is a normal fold of skin seen at the back of the fetal neck during the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased thickness of the nuchal fold is a soft marker associated with multiple fetal anomalies, and is measured on a routine second trimester ultrasound.  Terminology It shou...
Article

Omphalocele

Omphaloceles, also known as exomphalos (rare plural: exomphali), are congenital midline abdominal wall defects at the base of the umbilical cord insertion, with herniation of gut (or occasionally other structures) out of the fetal abdomen. Epidemiology The estimated occurrence can be up to 1:4...
Article

Mature cystic ovarian teratoma

Ovarian dermoid cyst and mature cystic ovarian teratoma are terms often used interchangeably to refer to the most common ovarian neoplasm. These slow-growing tumors contain elements from multiple germ cell layers and can be assessed with ultrasound or MRI.  Terminology Although they have very ...
Article

Papillary thyroid cancer

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland and frequently has nodal metastases at presentation. Terminology When the tumor measures <1 cm, the term micropapillary carcinoma (mPTC) is used 14.  Epidemiology Papillary thyroid cancer (as is the case wit...
Article

Strawberry gallbladder

Strawberry gallbladder refers to the surface appearance (not shape) of the mucosa of the gallbladder due to multiple small collections of triglycerides and cholesterol esters within the lamina propria of the gallbladder wall (gallbladder wall cholesterolosis).  Strawberry gallbladder represents...
Article

Tubal ectopic pregnancy

Tubal ectopic pregnancy (or adnexal ectopic pregnancy) is the most common location of an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology It is the most common type of ectopic by far, accounting for 93-97% of cases. Pathology Although the fallopian tube has many anatomical parts, for the purposes of ectopic ...
Article

Twin-peak sign (twin pregnancy)

The twin peak sign (also known as the lambda (λ) sign) is a triangular appearance of the chorion insinuating between the layers of the intertwin membrane and strongly suggests a dichorionic twin pregnancy. It is best seen in the first trimester (between 10-14 weeks) 5. While the presence of a tw...
Article

Ultrasound of the hip (adult)

There are several approaches to ultrasound examination of the adult hip.  Anterior approach Patient positioning supine with the hip in mild external rotation Planes sagittal oblique plane parallel to the long axis of the femoral neck to assess femoral head and neck and for any joint effusio...
Article

Ultrasound of the shoulder

Ultrasound of the shoulder is a fast, relatively cheap, and dynamic way to examine the rotator cuff and is particularly useful in diagnosing: shoulder impingement shoulder instability rotator cuff disorders The examination requires attention to technique and appropriate patient positioning. ...
Article

Uteroplacental blood flow assessment

Uteroplacental blood flow assessment is an important part of fetal well-being assessment and evaluates Doppler flow in the uterine arteries and rarely the ovarian arteries. Pathology In a non-gravid state and at the very start of pregnancy the flow in the uterine artery is of high pulsatility ...
Article

Graf method for ultrasound classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

The Graf method for ultrasound classification system for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants, describes both alpha and beta angles. As a general rule, the alpha angle determines the type and the beta angle determines the subtype. The angle is formed by the acetabular roof to the...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.