Items tagged “urology”

23 results
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Acute pyelonephritis

Acute pyelonephritis (plural: acute pyelonephritides) is a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma most commonly seen in young women. It remains common and continues to have significant morbidity in certain groups of patients. Epidemiology The incidence of acute pyelonephritis p...
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Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when a testis torts on the spermatic cord resulting in the cutting off of blood supply. The most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause, a bell-clapper deformity. The diagnosis is often made clinically but if it is in doubt, an ultr...
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Urinary bladder hernia

Herniation of the urinary bladder is a relatively uncommon but not a rare condition. It occurs when the urinary bladder or ureter herniates into the inguinal canal, scrotal sac or femoral canal. Herniations through ischiorectal, obturator, or abdominal wall openings have also been described. Bla...
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Urinary bladder trauma

Urinary bladder trauma describes a spectrum of damage that can be caused to the urinary bladder, usually in the context of significant trauma. Epidemiology Bladder trauma is generally associated with high energy injuries, and is associated with pelvic fractures in the majority of cases 3,6. Th...
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Hypospadias

Hypospadias refers to a type of congenital malformation affecting the male external genitalia. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 (range 0.2-4.1) per 1000 live births. Pathology The urethral meatus is abnormally positioned proximally and ventrally to its normal position. It is thou...
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Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis (plural: hydronephroses) is defined as dilatation of the urinary collecting system of the kidney (the calyces, the infundibula, and the pelvis) 1. Hydronephrosis in fetuses and newborns has specific causes that are covered in a separate article. Terminology The term hydroureter...
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SFU grading system of hydronephrosis

The grading system of hydronephrosis developed by the Society of Fetal Urology (SFU) was devised to assess the degree of hydronephrosis. Usage This system is considered the most commonly used and was originally designed to grade neonatal and infant pelvicalyectasis ref. Classification grad...
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Leukoplakia of the urinary tract

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract is a squamous metaplasia of the urothelium (keratinization).  Clinical presentation Clinically the condition presents with hematuria in one-third of cases, dysuria, frequency and nocturia, and thus it can mimic cystitis. Passage of the desquamated keratinized e...
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Ureteric injury

Ureteric injury is a relatively uncommon, but severe event, which may result in serious complications as a diagnosis is often delayed.  Clinical presentation Ureteric injuries unreliably demonstrate macro- or microscopic hematuria as it may be absent in up to 25% of patients 5, 6. Classic clin...
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Urinary bladder wall thickening

Urinary bladder wall thickening is a common finding and its significance depends on whether the bladder is adequately distended. Radiographic features Ultrasound In both adults and children, the wall may be considered thickened on ultrasound if it measures 6: >3 mm when distended (>25% expec...
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Subcapsular perirenal hematoma

A subcapsular perirenal hematoma is a form of perirenal hematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) 5,...
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Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical condition involving the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys (pyelonephritis). It is commonly divided into 'uncomplicated' and 'complicated' infections.  Clinical presentation painful urination strangury bloody, dark, cloudy urine urinary frequen...
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Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

Renal artery pseudoaneurysms are uncommon vascular finding, with the majority occuring after a renal intervention. Pathology A renal artery pseudoaneurysm differs from a renal artery true aneurysm (as might occur in fibromuscular dysplasia) in that it does not involve all three layers of the a...
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Transurethral resection of the prostate

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a traditional therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and prostatism from benign prostatic hyperplasia. Transurethral resection of the prostate results in characteristic imaging features. Indications acute urinary retention recurrent u...
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Nephrostomy

Nephrostomy is a common urologic or interventional radiology procedure in which a tube/catheter is introduced into the renal collecting system (usually the renal pelvis). Nephrostomies can either be "open" nephrostomy: after a urological surgical procedure, such as a UPJ stone removal these t...
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Pyelostomy

Pyelostomy is a rarely performed procedure in which an externalized catheter drains the renal pelvis. It is different from a nephrostomy in that the catheter in a pyelostomy enters the renal pelvis directly without passing though the renal parenchyma. It is much more prone to complication than a...
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Transureteroureterostomy

Transureteroureterostomy (TUU) is a procedure in which one ureter is divided and then connected (re-routed) into the other. It is performed when a distal ureter needs to be bypassed and can be performed instead of a psoas hitch or Boari flap. It may be preferable if the patient has had prior rad...
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Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a common non-invasive treatment for urolithiasis, and less commonly for pancreatic or salivary ductal stones 4. It is less successful in obese patients and with stones >2 cm. Children respond equally well or better to ESWL than adults 5. The princ...
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Prostatectomy

Prostatectomy is a common procedure to remove the prostate gland, most often for prostate adenocarcinoma, although occasionally performed for benign prostatic hyperplasia. When performed for tumor, it is only indicated for tumors that are confined to the prostate. There are two main types of pr...
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Primary urethral cancer

Primary urethral cancer, in most cases a urethral carcinoma, is a rare urological malignancy. It can be divided into female urethral cancer and male urethral cancer. Epidemiology It has an incidence of 4.3 per million for males and 1.5 per million for females. It usually manifests in the 5th d...