Items tagged “vascular”

60 results found
Article

Accessory right inferior hepatic vein

An accessory right inferior hepatic vein is the most common variation of the hepatic veins.  It is present in up to 48% of the population and drains the posterior part of the right lobe (mainly segments 6 and 7) directly into the inferior vena cava. Variations in hepatic vascular anatomy are pa...
Article

String sign (artery)

The angiographic string sign, also known as the carotid string sign, refers to the thin string of intravenous contrast material distal to a stenotic focus in the internal carotid artery (ICA).  Pathology A thin stripe of flow is caused by decreased pressure and flow distal to the stenosis, whi...
Article

Aorta

The aorta, the great artery, is the largest artery of the human body and carries oxygenated blood ejected from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation. It is divided into: thoracic aorta ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta abdominal aorta It has branches from each section a...
Article

Asymmetrically large jugular bulb

Asymmetrically large jugular bulbs are entirely normal and asymptomatic; its only significance is to distinguish it from pathology. The size of the jugular bulbs is variable, with the right side being significantly larger than the left in two-thirds of people. A normal but large bulb will have...
Article

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Budd-Chiari syndrome refers to the clinical picture that occurs when there is partial or complete hepatic venous outflow obstruction. It is characterised on imaging by ascites, caudate hypertrophy, peripheral atrophy, and prominent collateral veins.  Epidemiology Budd-Chiari syndrome is rare. ...
Article

Capillary haemangioma of the orbit

Capillary haemangiomas of the orbit, also known as strawberry haemangiomas, on account of its colouring, or orbital infantile haemangiomas, are the most common orbital tumours of infancy, and unlike orbital cavernous haemangiomas, they are neoplasms rather than vascular malformations. Clinical ...
Article

Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different aetiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as suc...
Article

Cerebral vascular malformations

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system can be divided, as they can elsewhere, into high and low flow malformations. High flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cerebral AVM (pial/parenchymal AVM) cerebral proliferative angiopathy dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pial arteri...
Article

Deep vein thrombosis

The term deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is practically a synonym for those that occur in the lower limbs. However, it can also be used for those that occur in the upper limbs and neck veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in specific section...
Article

Dehiscent jugular bulb

Dehiscent jugular bulbs are present when the sigmoid plate between a high riding jugular bulb and the middle ear is absent, allowing the wall of the jugular bulb to bulge into the middle ear cavity. Epidemiology The estimated incidence may be around 3.5-7 % of the symptomatic population (e.g. ...
Article

Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognised as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
Article

Dural sinus occlusive disease

Dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD) is an infective form of dural sinus thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) commonly seen in the setting of acute otomastoiditis. It typically presents with: severe headaches high fevers sixth nerve palsy - due to involvement of Dorello's canal altered conscious st...
Article

Fibrinous pericarditis

Fibrinous pericarditis results from fine granular roughening of the pericardium. Clinical presentation Pericardial friction rub may be heard. Pathology Causes viral acute idiopathic tuberculosis pyogenic acute rheumatic fever myocardial infarction: Dressler syndrome chronic renal fail...
Article

Musculoskeletal haemangiopericytoma

Musculoskeletal haemangiopericytomas are now considered to be a cellular and more aggressive version of solitary fibrous tumours, and the term has largely been abandoned.  Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently seen in middle-aged adults (~ 4th decade). Pathology Location Typically ...
Article

Musculoskeletal haemangiopericytoma

Musculoskeletal haemangiopericytomas are now considered to be a cellular and more aggressive version of solitary fibrous tumours, and the term has largely been abandoned.  Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently seen in middle-aged adults (~ 4th decade). Pathology Location Typically ...
Article

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterised by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Worldwide prevale...
Article

High riding jugular bulb

A high riding jugular bulb is distinguished from an asymmetrically large jugular bulb by its dome (roof) reaching above the internal acoustic meatus (IAM). It need not be larger than the contralateral bulb, but usually is. A run of the mill high riding jugular bulb has an intact sigmoid plate -...
Article

Aortoiliac occlusive disease

Aortoiliac occlusive disease refers to complete occlusion of the aorta distal to the renal arteries. Terminology When the clinical triad of impotence, pelvis and thigh claudication, and absence of the femoral pulses are present, it may also be called Leriche syndrome, which usually affects you...
Article

Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxtomatous degeneration of the mi...
Article

Mixed vascular malformation

A mixed vascular malformation (MVM) is a relatively common congenital cerebral vascular malformation, most frequently comprising of a developmental venous anomaly and a cavernous malformation. As DVAs seldom bleed, the risk of a MVM is determined by the other component. Please, refer to the art...

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