Items tagged “vascular”

44 results found
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Etiology uremia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) post-radiotherapy 5 On chest radio...
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Popliteal artery aneurysm

Popliteal artery aneurysms are the most common peripheral arterial aneurysm and the second most common aneurysm after abdominal aortic aneurysms. Epidemiology Overall, popliteal artery aneurysms are uncommon. They occur almost exclusively in males (up to 97%) for unknown reasons 8-9. There is ...
Article

Portosystemic collateral pathways

Portosystemic collateral pathways (also called varices) develop spontaneously via dilatation of pre-existing anastomoses between the portal and systemic venous systems. This facilitates shunting of blood away from the liver into the systemic venous system in portal hypertension, as a means for r...
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Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is defined as portal venous pressure greater than 12 mmHg. Pathology Causes can be split in their relation to the hepatic sinusoids: presinusoidal portal vein thrombosis extrinsic compression of portal vein Schistosomiasis (S. mansoni or S. japonicum) sinusoidal cirrh...
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Pseudovein sign (bowel)

The pseudovein sign can occur with active gastrointestinal bleeding where contrast extravasation during angiography may have a curvilinear appearance as it pools in the gastric rugae or mucosal folds of bowel, mimicking the appearance of a vein. However, contrast in the “pseudovein” persists bey...
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Recurrent artery of Heubner

Recurrent artery of Heubner, also known as the medial striate artery or long central artery, is the largest perforating branch from the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and is the only one routinely seen on angiography. Gross anatomy Origin and course Its origin is near the A1-ACOM-A2...
Article

Scimitar syndrome (lungs)

Scimitar syndrome, also known as hypogenetic lung syndrome, is characterized by a hypoplastic lung that is drained by an anomalous vein into the systemic venous system. It is a type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and is one of the several findings in congenital pulmonary venolobar ...
Article

Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation grading system

The Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system allocates points for various features of intracranial arteriovenous malformations to give a grade between 1 and 5. Grade 6 is used to describe inoperable lesions. The score correlates with operative outcome. Grading size of ni...
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Spinal AVM classification

Spinal arteriovenous malformations can be classified in a number of ways: intramedullary extramedullary: 80% 1 Or into four types 2: type I: single coiled vessel (dural AV fistula) type II: intramedullary glomus AVM type III: juvenile  type IV: intradural perimedullary (AV fistula) sub t...
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Tumor thrombus

Tumor thrombus is defined as tumor extending into a vessel, typically a vein. It occurs in a wide variety of malignancies. It is vital to distinguish tumor thrombus from "bland" thrombus (free of neoplastic cells) in the setting of neoplasia, as this often impacts staging and treatment approach....
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Vascular anatomical variants

Vascular anatomical variants are common. Aorta variants Thoracic aorta Ascending aorta Aortic arch Descending aorta Abdominal SVC & IVC - variants Intracranial arteries - variants
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Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form and supply the kidne...
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Hyper-reninaemic hypertension (differential)

Hyper-reninaemic hypertension may have many causes including: renal artery stenosis renal secreting tumor, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, reninoma renal compression: large renal mass, subcapsular hemorrhage (Page kidney)
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Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are that they...
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Transverse sinus

The transverse sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses and drains the superior sagittal sinus, the occipital sinus and the straight sinus, and empties into the sigmoid sinus which in turn reaches the jugular bulb. The two transverse sinuses arise at the confluence of the three aforementioned s...
Article

Ruptured berry aneurysm

Rupture of a berry aneurysm, also known as a saccular aneurysm, usually results in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) but can, depending on the location of the rupture and presence of adhesions to the aneurysm, also result in cerebral hematoma, subdural hematoma and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. ...
Article

Duplication of inferior vena cava

Duplication of the inferior vena cava is a relatively rare vascular anomaly, but this caval abnormality needs to be recognized, especially in association with renal anomalies like crossed fused ectopia or circumaortic renal collar 1-2. Epidemiology The incidence of inferior vena caval duplicat...
Article

Macaroni sign (arteries)

Macaroni sign is a sign seen in Takayasu arteritis on ultrasound. It represents smooth, homogeneous and moderately echogenic circumferential thickening of the arterial wall that occurs in Takayasu arteritis. The sign is highly specific for Takayasu arteritis, more commonly noted in the common ca...
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Arteriovenous fistula

An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an abnormal connection between an adjacent artery and vein. Unlike an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), these are frequently acquired lesions, rather than developmental abnormalities. Pathology Arteriovenous fistulas have a number of etiologies. They can be ia...
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Arteriovenous access

Arteriovenous access is required for haemodialysis in renal failure patients. The upper limb is generally preferred as a site, however, lower limb access can also be obtained. Ultrasound is the preferred modality for evaluation of the vessels prior to creating an access. Types arteriovenous fi...

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