Bronchial arterial enlargement

Last revised by Yuranga Weerakkody on 7 Mar 2023

Bronchial arterial enlargement or hypertrophy usually occurs as a result of bronchial pulmonary shunting and is a risk factor for hemoptysis.

Bronchial arterial enlargement can result from a wide range of conditions, with more common causes including:

Assessment of the presence and extent of bronchial arterial enlargement is particularly important in those presenting with hemoptysis.

The bronchial arteries typically arise from the thoracic aorta at the T3-T8 levels. 80% of arteries arise from the T5 to T6 level. Enlarged arteries are often seen and dilated tortuous vessels at this level in the mediastinum. In this situation, the proximal bronchial arteries are usually >2 mm 2,7.

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: with concurrent bronchiectasis
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