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Macroscopically, it is folded to form gyri and sulci allowing for increased surface area within the limited space of the cranium. Formation of the gyri and sulci are also important for functional organization of the brain. Two-thirds of the cerebral cortex is located within the sulci, while the other third is exposed on the gyrus.
Approximately 90% of the human cortex consists of six layers forming the neocortex, while 10% of the cortex has only three layers, forming the allocortex (including hippocampus and olfactory cortex).
In the neocortex, the layers are numbered from superficial (I) to deep (VI) 1. The layers are:
external granular layer
external pyramidal layer
internal granular layer
internal pyramidal layer
- 1. Barbara Young, Phillip Woodford, Geraldine O'Dowd. Wheater's Functional Histology. 6th EditionISBN: 9780702054884