Radiopaedia Pty Ltd (ACN 133 562 722) Last Reviewed: 20 August 2022
Thank you for visiting Radiopaedia.org (Site), a collaborative radiology resource, and/or downloading our app, which incorporates Site content (App).
- Warranty and disclosures
- Medical disclaimer
- Ownership and Licences
- User conduct
- Patient confidentiality
Content on the Platforms is provided for educational purposes only and is provided for use by medical professionals. It should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. It is not intended as, nor should it be, a substitute for independent professional medical care. We recommend that you consult your own physician regarding any diagnosis, imaging interpretation or course of treatment.
As content is submitted by individual users, Radiopaedia and its associates (including licensors) (Associates) cannot guarantee its accuracy and assume no legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, currency or completeness of the information.
Medical practitioners must make their own independent assessment before suggesting a diagnosis or recommending or instituting a course of treatment. The Platforms should not in any way be seen as a replacement for consultation with colleagues or other sources, or as a substitute for conventional training and study.
If you are not medically qualified and are registering as a layperson, you further acknowledge that the content on the Platforms is provided for educational purposes only, and is provided for use by medical professionals. You agree to use the information solely for your own private educational purposes and further agree not to rely on the information in any way.
Ownership and Licences
User-contributed image content
Other than in respect of Image Content contributed by you, Radiopaedia grants to you a sub-licence of the Image Content Licence to the extent necessary, and only to such an extent, for you to access and use the Platforms. Image Content (other than Image Content contributed by you) may not be modified, copied, distributed, reused, reproduced, republished, downloaded, displayed, posted, transmitted, or sold by you in any form or by any means, in whole or in part, outside the bounds of the modified CC licence below, without prior written permission from the contributing user, or if the contributing user has delegated such rights to Radiopaedia on their Account Settings Page then from Radiopaedia.
So that text content you contribute to Radiopaedia can be readily edited by other Radiopaedia users it is necessary that all rights to any text content which you contribute to any Platform — including but not limited to articles, case and image descriptions, multiple-choice questions, blog posts, playlists, tutorials, and all communications you transmit to anyone through any Platform (Text Content) — become the property of Radiopaedia and you assign to Radiopaedia, free of charge and effective on making such contribution, all right, title and interest in such content (including any copyright, but excluding any non-assignable personal rights).
Unless otherwise agreed by Radiopaedia in writing, all such content is simultaneously licensed to you under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported licence.
You may modify Text Content in good faith and in the legitimate use of a Platform, but Text Content may not otherwise be modified, copied, distributed, reused, reproduced, republished, downloaded, displayed, posted, transmitted, or sold by you in any form or by any means, in whole or in part, outside the scope of this licence, without prior written permission from Radiopaedia.
Warranty and disclosures
- has been collected by you in a diligent and professional manner and in accordance with the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth);
- is de-identified such that the identity of each patient to whom Your Content relates is not identifiable or reasonably identifiable;
- comprises legitimate and original content such as, but not limited to radiographic images (CT, US, MRI, X-rays, DSA etc..), photos, diagrams and illustrations and that these have not been in any way copied from any secondary source; and
- will not infringe any third-party intellectual property rights when used on, or in connection with, any Platform.
In regards to the content you contribute, you warrant that:
- recommendations for patient care or diagnosis are based on current science, evidence, and clinical reasoning, while giving a fair and balanced view of diagnostic and therapeutic options;
- any such recommendations are supported by appropriate reference material;
- you identify any new or evolving practices for which there is limited evidence as such; and
- you avoid advocating or promoting practices that are not supported by clinical evidence.
Furthermore, in regards to disclosures you warrant that:
- your contributions will be free from real or perceived commercial bias;
- you will avoid promoting any specific commercial products such as, but not limited to, pharmaceuticals, devices, software products or services (read more);
- you will truthfully and fully disclose any potential conflicts of interest including financial relationships, regardless of amount, that you have had in the past 24 months with any ineligible company, as well as any specific information that could be thought of as biasing your contributions in the disclosure section of your user profile; and
- you will truthfully and fully keep your disclosures updated when they change or you are prompted to do so by any Platform.
Moral rights etc
Despite any provision to the contrary at law or under the CC Licence, you consent to Radiopaedia making, and allowing third parties to make, any use of Your Content which would otherwise infringe any non-assignable personal rights which may subsist in Your Content.
Modifications to CC Licence
You acknowledge that each Platform is a "Collection" as defined in the CC Licence. You further acknowledge that the CC Licence is amended as follows, in respect of Your Content (irrespective of when you posted Your Content). Despite any contrary provision in the CC Licence:
- Radiopaedia will endeavor to ensure appropriate attribution is made or is not made (as the case may be), but will not be liable in any way for failing to make appropriate attribution or failing to comply with any request to remove any attribution;
- Radiopaedia may:
- accept commercial sponsorship;
- charge Users for registering for, accessing or using any Platform (other than the Web Platform, which will always be freely accessible) and/or for access to certain modules of Image Content and Text Content on any Platform (other than the Web Platform);
Fair Use of Content
The intention of Radiopaedia and the CC License is to facilitate the ability of individuals to teach each other. You may, therefore, use selected Text Content and User Generated Image Content in accordance with the CC Licence (abiding by Attribution, Non-commercial and Share-Alike provisions) for teaching and other non-commercial educational activities. This does not extend, however, to copying entire sections of the site for reproduction in other websites or mediums.
Scraping or otherwise automated copying of content
Radiopaedia is not designed or intended to be used as an imaging data-set for Machine Learning/Artificial Intelligence research, nor is it available for bulk download using an automated script or robot or any other process whereby many cases are downloaded.
Similarly, using the "download playlist" feature available to Curie (Radium) level supporters is only intended to be used to download playlists for teaching or personal study. Using this features to download a large number of playlists or playlists that contain hundreds of cases is considered outside the fair-use scope of this feature.
We reserve the right to block any unauthorised automated access and to take any other measures deemed necessary to protect the intellectual property rights of the content contributed by users and the stable operation of the website.
If you have a legitimate need to access large numbers of our cases please contact us by writing to [email protected]
Platform Intellectual Property Rights
All rights in all software, designs, arrangements, graphics pertaining to the Platforms belong to Radiopaedia.
All trademarks, product names, and company names and/or logos displayed on the Platforms are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Radiopaedia or its Associates and may not be reproduced, imitated, or used, in whole or in part, without the prior written permission of Radiopaedia. All page headers, custom graphics, button icons, and logos are service marks, trademarks and/or trade dress of Radiopaedia or its Associates and may not be reproduced, imitated, or used, in whole or in part, without the prior written permission of Radiopaedia.
In using any Platform, you agree:
- to comply with all policies of Radiopaedia or its Associates contained in, or referred to on, the Platform or as otherwise communicated to you by or on behalf of Radiopaedia from time to time;
- not to disrupt or interfere with the security of, or otherwise abuse, the Platform, or any services, system resources, software, accounts, servers or networks connected to or accessible through the Platform or affiliated or linked Web sites;
- not to disrupt or interfere with any other user's enjoyment of the Platforms or affiliated or linked Web sites;
- not to use or attempt to use another's account, service or system without authorization from Radiopaedia, or create or use a false identity on the Platform;
- not to divulge your username and password to others either on or off the Platform;
- not to attempt to obtain unauthorized access to any aspect of the Platform which is restricted from general access;
- not use the Platform to seek, provide or obtain specific medical advice, medical opinion, diagnosis or treatment as applied to any person’s particular condition or situation;
- not to upload, post, or otherwise transmit through or on the Platform any viruses or other harmful, disruptive or destructive files, and;
- not to transmit through or on the Platform spam, chain letters, junk mail or any other type of unsolicited mass email to people or entities who have not agreed to be part of such mailings;
Furthermore, regarding the information, you provide about yourself when creating a user profile (https://radiopaedia.org/my/settings), you agree:
- to use your real name, correctly formated in your user profile (First name, Middle name (if applicable), Last name)
- to use accurate titles, qualifications and other fields
If you chose to upload a profile photo (optional) to your user profile, you must not use another individual's photo, nor any image subject to copyright.
In addition, you agree that you are solely responsible for actions and communications undertaken or transmitted under your account and that you will comply with all applicable local, state, national and international laws and regulations when using any Platform.
Online Communities and Other Interactive Areas
The Platforms contain areas where you may post and share comments with other persons on a variety of subjects. You agree that you will not post or otherwise disseminate on or through any Platform unlawful, defamatory, harassing, libellous, tortious, abusive, offensive, threatening, or obscene communications or material of any kind, or materials which infringe or violate any third party's copyright, trademark, trade secret, privacy or other proprietary or property right, or that could constitute a criminal offence, give rise to civil liability or otherwise violate any applicable law or regulation or, that are otherwise objectionable, including without limitation, content that demonstrates bigotry, racism, sexism, or hatred, or that promotes illegal activities, including without limitation unauthorized uses of medical devices, or physical harm against anyone. Radiopaedia reserves the right but not the obligation to remove any materials it deems objectionable, in its sole discretion and without any reference to you. You agree to hold harmless Radiopaedia and its Associates from all claims from third parties based upon communications made or materials posted by you or upon your abuse of any Platform.
You expressly agree that you will not discuss or refer to any particular patient, any particular patient's medical condition or any other information which could identify a particular patient. You further expressly agree that you will not discuss, endorse or refer to "off-label” uses of medical products, including any uses which have not been approved by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or another applicable regulatory agency.
Notice of Inappropriate Use
Last Reviewed: 20 August 2022
Our commitment to privacy
Your privacy and that of your patients is very important to Radiopaedia.org. While the purpose of the Platforms is to facilitate the sharing of information and knowledge (including radiographic images, case notes and other content relating to radiology), we keep your personal information safe and secure.
We do not sell or share your name, email or contact information with any third party, except certain integrated services that allow us to communicate directly with you (see the “User communication” section below).
There also may be times when we are legally required to disclose personal data, such as to regulators, law enforcement bodies, government agencies, courts or other third parties where we think it’s necessary to comply with applicable laws and regulations or to exercise our legal rights.
We publish this policy explaining our online information practices and the choices you can make about the way your information is collected and used so that you can make an informed decision about using and/or registering for any Platform, and learn how your use and/or registration may affect your privacy.
The information we collect about you
User Information is information that is provided by you to us when you register online for any Platform. The following information is required to complete registration:
- Email address and password
- First and Last name
- Level of training
- Rose/Specialty/Primary interest
Additional information including, but not limited to, your city, institution(s), title, qualifications and spelling preference (e.g. UK or US English) may be collected by us if you elect to enter that information during the registration process or subsequently by editing your account settings page.
Information regarding how you interact with the Platforms may also be collected by us and linked to your account, including, but not limited to, the content you edit or contribute, content visited, time spent on the site, answers to multiple choice questions etc…
Your user information, excluding your email address and password, are displayed on your public profile contained within the Platforms.
Every computer connected to the Internet is associated with a unique numerical identifier, known as an Internet Protocol address (IP Address). When you access our services via any Platform, our servers need to know your IP Address, which is sent automatically when information is requested by you (e.g. web page showing a particular patient case contained on the Radiopaedia.org website).
Usage Data includes general information about how you interact with the web pages and websites on the Platforms. This is collected using cookies (or similar technologies) placed by us and others - cookies are small pieces of data sent from a website and stored in a web browser, and which may assign an anonymous identifier to the user.
Usage Data includes:
- pages you visited on our websites
- how you came to the website (e.g. via our newsletter)
- which particular buttons or links on the site you clicked
- whether you have been to the site before
- where you are located (city and country)
- inferences that we draw from cookies placed on your browser
The way we use information
Other users may contact you via a ‘contact user’ link in your profile. However, when this link is activated and a communication window opens, your email address remains hidden to the user.
These communications occur either directly through our application or using third-party communication providers (e.g. Mailchimp.com, SupportBee.com).
Additionally, your account will be linked to third-party payment providers (e.g. Stripe.com) if you have chosen to do so by becoming a Radiopaedia Supporter or purchasing a course.
We use Usage Data to understand the online behavior of our users. In particular, using web analytics services on the Platforms enables us to measure, collect, analyze and report on Usage Data for the purposes of understanding and optimizing users’ experiences on the Platforms. It also enables us to focus our marketing activities, which, in turn, help us to develop the Platforms.
Geographical location information contained in the Usage Data enables us to tailor your experience on the Platforms by displaying different content based on your location, such as local advertising offers, and content in your local language.
Information Transferred or Stored Overseas
Many of those other providers are located overseas and Usage Data disclosed to them may be stored on servers located overseas. Similarly, while we operate out of Australia and may store Usage Information and Usage Data on servers located there, some may be stored on servers located overseas and/or managed by third parties.
When we do transfer data, we will make sure that there are appropriate safeguards in place to protect your personal data.
For individuals in the European Union (EU), this means that your personal data will be transferred outside of the EU. EU personal data will only be transferred to countries that have been identified as providing adequate protection for EU data (such as New Zealand) or to a third party where we have approved transfer mechanisms in place – this means that we have either entered into an appropriate Data Processing Agreement or by ensuring that the entity has appropriate data protection in place.
For further information about how each of the other providers referred to above handles personal information (which may include your Usage Data and User Information), we recommend that you visit their respective websites and read their respective privacy policies.
Our commitment to data security
To prevent unauthorized access, maintain data accuracy, and ensure the correct use of information, we have put in place appropriate physical, electronic, and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure the information we collect online.
How you can access or correct your information or opt-out
Online tracking by Us and Third Parties
Please note that at present we do not change what we do based on whether you have the Do Not Track setting (if available) enabled in your web browser and that setting will not prevent us from collecting Usage Data or authorizing other providers to do so.
Cookies, Your say and How to 'Opt-out'
You can contact us to request access to the User Information, and any other personal information, that we may hold. We will respond to your request within a reasonable period (and if you are in the European Union, within 30 days) and provide you with access, except in certain limited circumstances. You may request us to correct any personal information that is not accurate, up-to-date, complete, and relevant or is misleading, and we will change it where reasonable to do so.
For further information about access and correction, or if you have any complaints or concerns about how we manage your User Information or Usage Data, please contact us at the details provided below.
If you no longer wish us to process your User Information, Usage Data or IP Address Details for certain purposes, you can do any or all of the following:
- opt-out of receiving online communications from us by clicking the ‘unsubscribe’ link at the bottom of the newsletter, advertisement or other communication (as applicable)
- delete existing cookies from your web browser and/or disable cookies on your computer and/or other devices (as appropriate). Depending on the particular browser you are using (e.g. Google Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox), this can usually be done on your computer by accessing your ‘Browsing History’ through the ‘Settings’ or ‘Options’ menu (or equivalent) in your web browser, or if you are using a different device, then in the ‘Settings’ for that device. If you do not disable cookies in your web browser, and you subsequently visit our website, fresh cookies are likely to be placed and you may need to repeat the process of deleting existing cookies
- alter your ad preference settings in each of Google and Facebook, and on the platforms of other providers, if you have access to do so
- opt-out of the collection of Usage Data via any Platform by third parties who are members of the Digital Advertising Alliance (aboutads.info/choices and aboutads.info/PMC) or Network Advertising Initiative (networkadvertising.org/choices/#completed) and following the appropriate prompts
If you disable cookies in your web browser, delete existing cookies, or take other steps to ‘opt-out’, the Platforms may not work properly and your experience with the Platforms will be less personalised and may be less enjoyable. Deleting existing cookies from your web browser may also cause it to lose recorded information for other websites, such as previously used usernames and passwords.
Your withdrawal of consent for us to use your information for certain purposes may mean that we can no longer provide the Platforms to you.
Your personal data belongs to you, and you have the right to:
- know what personal data we hold about you
- make sure that all personal data is correct and up-to-date
- ask us to correct any personal data
- object to our continued processing of your personal data
If you no longer wish to receive any online communications, just let us know by clicking the ‘unsubscribe’ link at the bottom of any marketing communication we send you.
Information that should NOT appear on any patient cases uploaded to any Platform (based on HIPAA guidelines) includes, but is not limited to:
- date of birth
- address, including full or partial postal code
- telephone or fax numbers or contact information
- e-mail addresses
- unique identifying numbers (e.g. UR, MRN, HID etc..)
- vehicle identifiers
- medical device identifiers (e.g serial numbers)
- web or internet protocol addresses containing any link to the patient
- biometric data
- facial photograph or comparable image
- names of relatives
- date of the study
Additionally, if a case is, for one reason or another, unique in such a way that could lead to the identification of an individual from the images alone, then it should not be uploaded, or informed consent obtained. This means that a case that has, for example, been featured in the media or is unusually rare in diagnosis or presenting symptoms is usually inappropriate for upload without content. Similarly, the textual information accompanying the text should also be devoid of identifying information, and devoid of other unnecessary information which could aid in the identification of a patient.
Furthermore, in some circumstances, for example, if you practice in a small community, even relatively common conditions may be identifiable.
We, therefore, urge you to err on the side of caution and obtain informed consent when in doubt. You can download a consent form from here or use your local consent form. If you do obtain consent please send a copy to [email protected].
If you become aware of any case from which you feel you (as a patient) or another person is reasonably identifiable, please contact us immediately at [email protected]a.org.
Links and Third-Party Content
Links to Other Web Sites
The Platforms may (from time to time) contain links to other Web sites. These links are provided as a convenience and do not constitute an endorsement, sponsorship (except in the case of "the sponsor” clearly identified) or recommendation by Radiopaedia of or affiliation or association of Radiopaedia with or responsibility of Radiopaedia for the linked Web sites or any content, Platforms or products available on or through such sites. If you decide to visit any linked site, you do so at your own risk and it is your responsibility to take all protective measures to guard against viruses or other destructive elements.
Links do not imply that Radiopaedia is, or its Associates are, legally authorized to use any trademark, trade name, product name, company name or logo displayed in or accessible through the links, or that any linked site is authorized to use any trademark, trade name, product name, company name or logo of ours or of any Provider.
Users must not post links to other Web sites, except when in the form of a link to a reference textbook or journal in the reference field of articles. Radiopaedia reserves the right to remove, in its absolute discretion, any and all links from any part of any Platform.
Links from Other Web Sites
Radiopaedia must approve all links to the Site in writing, except that Radiopaedia consents to links in which:
- the link, when activated by a user, displays the Site full-screen and not within a “frame” on the linked Web site, and
- the appearance, position, and other aspects of the link do not (i) create the false appearance that an entity or its activities or products are associated with or sponsored by Radiopaedia or its Associates, or (ii) be such as to damage or dilute the goodwill associated with the name and trademarks of Radiopaedia or its Associates.
In any event, you agree that Radiopaedia reserves the right to withdraw this consent to link without reason or notice and at any time and you further undertake to delete any link for which Radiopaedia's consent has been withdrawn.
The Platforms may (from time to time) contain material, data or information provided, posted or offered by third parties, including advertisements or postings in online community discussions. You agree, to the maximum extent permitted by law, that neither Radiopaedia nor its Associates shall have any liability whatsoever to you for any such third party material, data or information.
Disclaimers and Limitations of Liability
To the maximum extent permitted by law, you expressly agree that:
- your use of any platform is at your sole risk;
- except as otherwise expressly agreed in writing, Radiopaedia and its associates expressly disclaim any implied or express representations or warranties of any kind relating to the use of the platforms;
- without limiting the foregoing, Radiopaedia and its associates assume no responsibility for, and make no warranty or representation:
- as to the accuracy, currency, completeness, reliability or usefulness of, any information obtained through use of any Platform (including any advice, opinion, statement or other content or any products or services distributed or made available by third parties through any Platform);
- that confidentiality of information transmitted through any Platform will be maintained;
- that any Platform will be of merchantable quality, fit for a particular purpose or meet your requirements;
- that any access to, or use of, any Platform will:
- not infringe any rights (including intellectual property rights) of any third party; or
- be free of defects, viruses, or anything else (such as worms or Trojan horses) that may interfere with or damage the operations of a computer system;
- be uninterrupted or error-free or;
- you must take your own precautions to ensure that whatever you select for your use from any platform is free of defects, viruses or anything else (such as worms or trojan horses) that may interfere with or damage the operations of a computer system; and
- Radiopaedia and its associates are not liable to you or anyone else if interference with or damage to your computer system occurs in connection with your use of any platform
Limitation of Liability
if the breach relates to goods
- the replacement of the goods or supply of equivalent goods;
- the repair of such goods;
- the payment of the cost of replacing the goods or of acquiring equivalent goods; or
- the payment of the cost of having the goods repaired; and
if the breach relates to services:
- the supplying of the services again; or
- the payment of the cost of having the services supplied again.
To the maximum extent permitted by law Radiopaedia and its associates exclude all liability to any person for loss or damage of any kind (howsoever caused, including by negligence) arising from or relating in any way to any access to or use of any platform (including liability for any special, indirect, consequential or incidental damages, including, damages for loss of profits or revenues, business interruption, loss of programs or other data or costs of replacement goods, or otherwise, even if same have been expressly advised of the possibility of such loss or damages).
Radiopaedia may, as it sees fit, for any reason or for no reason at all, without liability to you or any third party, terminate your account or your access to any App Platform. If we exercise any such termination right we will send an e-mail to the e-mail address recorded on your Account Settings Page and termination will be effective upon us sending that e-mail (and will be considered effective even if the e-mail is not delivered for any reason).
You may terminate your account for any reason at any time by sending an email clearly requesting that your account be terminated to [email protected] and we will implement your request promptly.
Governing Law; Venue and Jurisdiction
Effective Date, Amendment and Severability
How to find out about changes to these terms
The only changes we won't bother notifying anyone about are spelling mistakes, typos, grammatical changes and typographical changes provided these do not change the meaning of the Terms.
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