Anal cancer (staging)

The most recent version of TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows:

Primary tumour (T)
  • TX: primary tumour cannot be assessed
  • T0: no evidence of primary tumour
  • Tis: carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], anal intraepithelial neoplasia II-III (AIN II-III)
  • T1: tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension
  • T2: tumour >2 cm but <5 cm in greatest dimension
  • T3: tumour >5 cm in greatest dimension
  • T4: tumour of any size invades adjacent organ(s), e.g. vagina, urethra, bladder (note that direct invasion of the rectal wall, perirectal skin, subcutaneous tissue, or the sphincter muscle(s) is not classified as T4)
Regional lymph nodes (N)
  • Nx: regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
  • N0: no regional lymph node metastasis
  • N1: metastasis in regional lymph nodes
  • N1a: metastases in inguinal, mesorectal, and/or internal iliac lymph nodes
  • N1b: metastases in external iliac lymph nodes
  • N1c: metastases in external iliac and in inguinal, mesorectal, and/or internal iliac lymph nodes
Distant metastasis (M)
  • Mx: distant metastasis cannot be assessed
  • M0: no distant metastasis
  • M1: distant metastasis

Involvement of para-aortic or more distant lymph nodes is considered as M1.

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Article information

rID: 17396
Section: Staging
Tag: refs, cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Staging of anal cancer

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