Bacterial (pyogenic) pneumonia is common and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally.
Bacterial pneumonia has symptoms similar to other pneumonia. When a productive cough is present, purulent or blood-stained sputum may indicate bacterial pneumonia ref.
Typical bacteria that cause pneumonia include 1:
- Streptococcus pneumoniae: most common cause of CAP
- Streptococcus anginosus group (formerly Streptococcus milleri)
- Staphylococcus aureus
- group A Streptococcus
- Klebsiella pneumonia (Klebsiella pneumonia)
- Haemophilus influenzae (pulmonary Haemophilus influenzae infection)
- Moraxella catarrhalis
- Gram-negative organisms
Plain radiograph / CT
Chest x-ray and CT are unable to differentiate bacterial pneumonia from non-bacterial pneumonia 6. There is also a large overlap of imaging features with non-pneumonic processes 3.
Bacterial pneumonia characteristically produces focal segmental (i.e. bronchopneumonia) or lobar pulmonary opacities (i.e. lobar pneumonia) 4-6. Expansion characterized by bulging fissures has typically been attributed to lobar pneumonia, in particular Klebsiella pneumonia, but there are many non-bacterial causes 6.
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment is with antibiotic therapy, with both oral and intravenous options available depending on the severity and local guidelines.
Complications common for bacterial pneumonia include 3,6:
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- 2. Prasso JE, Deng JC. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia. (2017) Clinics in chest medicine. 38 (1): 127-138. doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2016.11.006 - Pubmed
- 3. Franquet T. Imaging of pneumonia: trends and algorithms. (2001) The European respiratory journal. 18 (1): 196-208. doi:10.1183/09031936.01.00213501 - Pubmed
- 4. William E. Brant, Clyde A. Helms. Fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology. (2020) ISBN: 9780781761352
- 5. Jannette Collins, Eric J. Stern. Chest Radiology. (2012) ISBN: 9781469802046
- 6. Vilar J, Domingo ML, Soto C, et al. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia. (2004) European journal of radiology. 51 (2): 102-13. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2004.03.010 - Pubmed