Simple pulmonary eosinophilia (also known as Löffler syndrome) is a type of pulmonary eosinophilia that typically presents with transient radiographic infiltrates, minimal constitutional upset, and an elevated eosinophil count in peripheral blood.
The cause is not usually identified but a number of allergens have been linked to the syndrome:
- parasites (e.g. Ascaris spp., Strongyloides spp., Ancylostoma spp.)
- drugs (e.g. aspirin, penicillin)
There is often a fleeting, non-segmental air space opacification which may be unilateral or bilateral. Usually, has a predominantly peripheral distribution. Pleural effusions and lymphadenopathy are not features.
Treatment and prognosis
The condition is usually self-limiting and treated conservatively. Opacities typically resolve within a month 3,5.
A restrictive type cardiomyopathy can develop from endomyocardial fibrosis.
History and etymology
Named after a Swiss physician, Wilhelm Löffler (1887-1972) 2, who first described the case histories of patients with chest radiographic infiltrates in 1932.
General imaging differential considerations include:
- 1. Grainger RG, Allison DJ. Grainger and Allison's diagnostic radiology, a textbook of medical imaging. Churchill Livingstone. (2001) ISBN:0443064326. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Moeschlin S. [In memory of Prof. Wilhelm Löffler. Deceased at the age of 85 years, Nov. 25, 1972]. (1973) Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis = Revue suisse de medecine Praxis. 62 (17): 551-3. Pubmed
- 3. Jeong YJ, Kim KI, Seo IJ et-al. Eosinophilic lung diseases: a clinical, radiologic, and pathologic overview. Radiographics. 27 (3): 617-37. doi:10.1148/rg.273065051 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Johkoh T, Müller NL, Akira M et-al. Eosinophilic lung diseases: diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT in 111 patients. Radiology. 2000;216 (3): 773-80. Radiology (full text) - Pubmed citation