Modified Ringertz grading system for diffuse astrocytomas

The modified Ringertz grading system has historically been one of the more frequently used grading systems for diffuse astrocytomas, but has not essentially been replaced by the WHO grading system.

Unlike the WHO grading system and St Anne-Mayo grading system (also known as the Dumas-Duport grading system) which divide astrocytomas into 4 grades, the Ringertz grading system only has 3 grades, and only applies to diffuse astrocytomas (i.e. not WHO grade 1 tumours such as pilocytic astrocytomas or subependymal giant cell astrocytomas) 1

As such there is a rough equivalence between WHO II - IV and modified Ringertz I - III, although there are some differences in the criteria required to fulfil various grades. 

The modified Ringertz grading system is as follows 2:

  • grade 1 = astrocytoma
    • roughly equivalent to WHO grade II
    • mild hypercellularity
    • mild nuclear atypia (nuclear enlargement, hyperchromasia, pleomorphism) 
    • rare mitotic figures
  • grade 2 = anaplastic astrocytoma 
    • roughly equivalent to WHO grade III
    • more cellular than grade 2
    • more nuclear atypia 
    • more mitotic figures
    • endothelial proliferation (note this is a WHO grade IV feature)
  • grade 3 = glioblastoma
    • roughly equivalent to WHO grade IV
    • presence of geographic necrosis +/- surrounding pseduopalisading tumour cells

History and etymology

Ringertz originally proposed the grading system in 1950 4

Astrocytic tumour
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Article Information

rID: 24059
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Modified Ringertz grading system of Burger

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