Citation, DOI and article data
Torsion in bone refers to the rotation or contortion along the longitudinal axis of the bone.
Torsion is measured in degrees and requires validated imaging protocols and anatomical landmarks and proper definition of reference points, which in bone are practically located at proximal and distal ends 1,2.
Torsional deformities might necessitate surgery in the form of rotational osteotomy to prevent joint damage 1,3.
- 1. Palmer W, Bancroft L, Bonar F et al. Glossary of Terms for Musculoskeletal Radiology. Skeletal Radiol. 2020;49(S1):1-33. doi:10.1007/s00256-020-03465-1 - Pubmed
- 2. Schmaranzer F, Lerch T, Siebenrock K, Tannast M, Steppacher S. Differences in Femoral Torsion Among Various Measurement Methods Increase in Hips With Excessive Femoral Torsion. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2019;477(5):1073-83. doi:10.1097/CORR.0000000000000610 - Pubmed
- 3. Balcarek P, Radebold T, Schulz X, Vogel D. Geometry of Torsional Malalignment Syndrome: Trochlear Dysplasia but Not Torsion Predicts Lateral Patellar Instability. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 2019;7(3):232596711982979. doi:10.1177/2325967119829790 - Pubmed