A child with urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection.
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Ectopic ureter results from failure of separation of the ureteral bud from wolfian duct leading to caudal migration. Females are more affected and symptomatic as the ureter inserts distal to the external sphincter while males are asymptomatic. The more distal the ureter is inserted the worse the prognosis.
- Berrocal T, López-Pereira P, Arjonilla A et-al. Anomalies of the distal ureter, bladder, and urethra in children: embryologic, radiologic, and pathologic features. Radiographics. 2002;22 (5): 1139-64. Pubmed citation
- Federle MP, Jeffrey RB, Woodward PJ et-al. Diagnostic Imaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2009) ISBN:1931884714. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon