Eosinophilic lung disease

Eosinophilic lung diseases are heterogenous group of disorders that are characterised by excess infiltration of the eosinophils within the lung interstitium and alveoli and are broadly divided into three main groups 1:

Diagnosis is made based on one of the followings:

  • pulmonary opacities on a chest radiograph or HRCT chest with peripheral eosinophilia
  • tissue eosinophilia at either open or transbronchial lung biopsy
  • increased eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid 

Pathology

Idiopathic 
Simple pulmonary eosinophilia (SPE)

Simple pulmonary eosinophilia (also known as Loffler syndrome) is benign and self-limiting condition, characterised by mild symptoms and plain radiographic findings usually much more impressive than the patient's condition, and classically have a reverse bat's wing appearance. Blood eosinophilia is a feature.

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) usually manifests with acute onset fever, severe dyspnoea and hypoxia for <5 days with rapid progression and shows rapid improvement when treated with steroids and usually no relapse after treatment. Pulmonary lavage reveals > 25% eosinophils. The aetiology of AEP is unknown. It has been suggested that it may represent acute hypersensitivity to an inhaled antigen. CT findings include bilateral patchy areas of ground-glass opacity and interlobular septal thickening. 

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP)

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is characterised by homogeneous peripheral airspace consolidation lasting >6 months, which responds to steroid treatment. This appearance results in a reverse bat's wing appearance. About 50% of patients with CEP have asthma. CEP may be difficult to differentiate from Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). While CEP has homogeneous peripheral airspace consolidations, the consolidations in CSS tends to be more lobular in distribution. In addition, CSS tends to have centrilobular nodules.

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHS)

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is a systemic disorder with damage to heart and the CNS. On CT, one finds nodules with a ground-glass halo, similar to SPE. In contrast to SPE, the opacities do not resolve spontaneously. In addition, approximately 50% of cases are associated with pleural effusions.

Secondary
Drugs 

Non specific findings on chest radiography and CT:

  • antibiotics
  • toxins

See also: drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

Infection
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)

ABPA is not a fungal infection, but rather a hypersensitivity response to fungal allergens. CT findings include bronchiectasis involving the central and upper lungs with or without mucoid impaction.

Bronchocentric granulomatosis (BG)

Bronchocentric granulomatosis (BG) is a rare disorder with nonspecific radiographic findings. Approximately two-thirds of cases are not associated with tissue eosinophilia. The remaining one-third have peripheral eosinophilia, asthma, fungal hyphae at biopsy and positive sputum cultures for Aspergillus.

Eosinophilic vasculitis(des)
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS)

Churg Strauss syndrome (also known as allergic granulomatosis and angiitis), is associated with CT findings similar to CEP. Like CEP, CSS is seen in asthma patients. In contrast to CEP, the subpleural consolidations tend to have a lobular distribution and tend to be migratory or transient. In addition, centrilobular nodules are found on CT.

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Article Information

rID: 1289
System: Chest
Sections: Gamuts, Pathology
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Eosinophilic pneumonia
  • Eosinophilic lung disease
  • Eosinophilic pneumonias
  • Eosinophilic lung diseases

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Cases and Figures

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    Case 1: chronic eosinophilic lung disease
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    Case 2: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia
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    Case 3: probable
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