Germinal matrix hemorrhage (grading mnemonic)

Last revised by Sonam Vadera on 2 Nov 2021

A mnemonic to remember the radiological grading of germinal matrix hemorrhage is:

  • CV2P 


It can be read as a central venous line

  • C: limited to the caudothalamic groove/ germinal matrix ( grade I )
  • V: expansion into ventricles less than 50% ( grade II )
  • V: dilated ventricles ( grade III )
  • P: parenchymal hemorrhage ( grade IV )

Intraventricular hemorrhage primarily associated with prematurity and intrinsic weakness of germinal matrix vasculature. Antenatal steroid use remains helpful path of its prevention. 

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Cases and figures

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