Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

306 results found
Article

Cholinergic crisis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for clinical findings relating to cholinergic crisis comprise: MDS​' BEDBUG LB FW HRCT CDS' CASA Mnemonics MDS' BEDBUG LB Colloquially denoting "MDs' Bedbug Pound," with pound semantically signaled by the letters "Lb", this mnemonic corresponds to the clinical features of acute c...
Article

Miliary lung nodules (mnemonic)

The list of differential diagnoses for miliary lung nodules can be recalled with the mnemonic: TEMPEST Mnemonic TEMPEST T: tuberculosis E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases (especially thyroid) P: pneumoconiosis E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis (now known as hypersensitivity pneumonit...
Article

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (mnemonic)

The features of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma can be recalled using this mnemonic: PSYCH Mnemonic P: pseudocapsule S: scar (fibrotic) Y: young patients C: capsular retraction H: huge and heterogenous
Article

Pulmonary edema signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiographic signs of pulmonary edema is: ABCDE Mnemonic A: alveolar opacification B: batwinging C: cardiomegaly D: diffuse interstitial thickening (septal lines) and diversion (vascular upper zone diversion, cephalisation) E: effusions (pleural)
Article

Bone tumors with internal trabeculations (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the types of bone tumors with internal trabeculations or pseudotrabeculations is: D CHANG Mnemonic D: desmoplastic fibroma C: chondromyxoid fibroma H: hemangioma (intraosseous) A: aneurysmal bone cyst N: non-ossifying fibroma G: giant cell tumor
Article

Cavitating lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of cavitating lesions seen in a chest x-ray is: WEIRD HOLES Mnemonic W: Wegener's granulomatosis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis) E: embolism (pulmonary, septic) I: infection (anaerobes, pneumocystis, TB) R: rheumatoid arthritis (necrobiotic no...
Article

UTI-causing microorganisms (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest micro-organisms responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs) is: KEEPS Mnemonic K: Klebsiella spp. E: Enterococcus faecalis / Enterobacter cloacae E: Escherichia coli P: Pseudomonas aeruginosa / Proteus mirabilis S: Staphylococcus saprophyticus / S...
Article

Parkinson disease common signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest clinical signs of Parkinson disease is SMART Mnemonic S: shuffling gait M: mask-like facies A: akinesia R: rigidity T: tremor
Article

Dialysis indications (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic indications of dialysis is HAVE PEE Mnemonic H: hyperkalemia (refractory) A: acidosis (refractory) V: volume overload E: elevated BUN > 35 mM P: pericarditis E: encephalopathy E: edema (pulmonary)
Article

Hematuria causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of hematuria is: I PEE RBCS Mnemonic I: infection P: pseudohaematuria (menses, dark urine) E: exercise E: external trauma R: renal glomerular disease B: benign prostatic hypertrophy C: cancer S: stones
Article

Scalp nerve supply (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the nerve supply to the scalp is: GLASS Mnemonic G: greater occipital nerve / greater auricular nerve L: lesser occipital nerve A: auriculotemporal nerve S: supratrochlear nerve S: supraorbital nerve Please note that other nerves also contribute, see anatomy articl...
Article

Abdominal paracentesis contraindications (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the contraindications to abdominal paracentesis is: CAPSID Mnemonic C: coagulopathy (INR >2.0)  A: abdominal wall cellulitis P: pregnancy S: surgical abdomen (absolute contraindication) / severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50 x 103/μL) I: intra-abdominal adhes...
Article

Marfan syndrome features (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic features of Marfan syndrome is: MARFANS Mnemonic M: mitral valve prolapse A: aortic dissection / aortic aneurysm R: regurgitant aortic valve / retinal detachment F: fibrillin-1 mutation A: arm span > height / arachnodactyly N: near-sightness / nasal voice...
Article

Forceps delivery criteria (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the criteria for forceps delivery is: FORCEPS Mnemonic F: fetus alive O: os dilated R: ruptured membrane / rotation complete C: cervix take-up E: engagement of head P: presentation suitable S: sagittal suture in AP diameter of inlet 
Article

Postpartum hemorrhage risk factors (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic risk factors of postpartum hemorrhage is: PARTUM Mnemonic P: prolonged labor / polyhydramnios / previous C-section A: APH R: recent Hx of bleeding T: twins U: uterine fibrosis M: multiparity 
Article

Endocarditis signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the most important signs of endocarditis is: FROM JANE Mnemonic F: fever R: Roth's spots O: Osler's nodes M: murmur of heart J: Janeway lesions A: anemia N: nail hemorrhage E: embolism
Article

Edwards syndrome characteristics (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the characteristics of Edwards syndrome is: EDWARDS Mnemonic E: Eighteen (trisomy) D: digit overlapping flexion W: wide head A: absent intellect (mental retardation) R: rocher-bottom feet D: diseased heart S: small lower jaw
Article

Acute abdominal pain differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the basic differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain is: ABDOMINAL Mnemonic A: appendicitis  B: biliary tract disease D: diverticulitis O: ovarian disease M: malignancy I: intestinal obstruction N: nephritic disorders A: acute pancreatitis L: liquor (ethano...
Article

Cyanosis differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to differentiate between central and peripheral cyanoses is: COLD PALMS Mnemonic C: cold (peripheral) O: obstruction (peripheral) L: LVF and shock (peripheral) D: decreased cardiac output (peripheral) P: polycythemia (central) A: altitude (central) L: lung disease (central) ...
Article

Felty syndrome components (mnemonic)

Felty syndrome is a rare condition that involves rheumatoid arthritis, decreased white blood cell count and spleen enlargement. A mnemonic to remember the basic components of Felty syndrome is: SANTA Mnemonic S: splenomegaly  A: anemia N: neutropenia T: thrombocytopenia A: arthritis (rhe...
Article

Thrombocytopenia causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of thrombocytopenia is: PLATELETS Mnemonic P: platelet disorders (DIC, TTP, ITP) L: leukemia  A: anemia T: trauma E: enlarged spleen L: liver disease E: ethanol T: toxicity (heparin, aspirin, chemotherapy, benzene) S: sepsis
Article

Acute pancreatitis severity criteria (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the severity criteria for acute pancreatitis is: PANCREAS Mnemonic P: PAO2 <8 kpA A: age >55 years N: neutrophilia (WBC >15 x 109 / L) C: calcium <2 mmol/L R: renal (urea >16 mmol/L) E: enzymes (LDH >600 IU/L and AST >200 IU/L) A: albumin (serum) <32 g/L S: sugar...
Article

Anion gap metabolic acidosis causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis is: GOLDMARK Mnemonic G: glycols (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) O: oxoproline L: L-lactate D: D-lactate M: methanol A: aspirin R: renal failure K: ketoacidosis
Article

Tinnitus causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of tinnitus is: HAMMER ​Mnemonic H: hypertension A: anemia / acoustic neuroma M: migraine / Menière's disease M: medication (quinine, NSAIDs, streptomycin)  E: ear pathology (wax, foreign body, otitis media)  R: rare (temporomandibular joint ...
Article

New onset atrial fibrillation causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of new onset atrial fibrillation is: PIRATES ​Mnemonic P: pulmonary I: ischemic R: rheumatic A: atrial myxoma T: thyroid E: embolism S: sepsis
Article

Seizure causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of seizures is: VITAMIN ​Mnemonic V: vascular I: infection T: trauma A: AV malformation  M: metabolic  I: idiopathic  N: neoplasm
Article

Cerebellar disease signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the signs of cerebellar disease is: DANISH Mnemonic D: dysdiadochokinesia/dysmetria A: ataxia N: nystagmus I: intention tremor S: slurred speech H: hypotonia
Article

Horner syndrome signs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest signs of Horner syndrome is: PAMELA Mnemonic P: ptosis A: anhydrosis M: miosis E: enophthalmos L: loss of ciliary-spinal reflex A: anisocoria
Article

Red flags of low back pain (mnemonic)

Low back pain is a very common condition among primary care patients. Most patients have nonspecific low back pain (85-90%) and would have unremarkable radiographs. The purpose of the red flags is to aid in the recommendation for imaging of the spine. A mnemonic to remember the red flags of low ...
Article

APPEND score

The APPEND score is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis. Criteria 1 male gender (1) anorexia (1) migratory pain (1) localized peritonism (1) elevated CRP > 15mg/L (1) neutrophilia >7.5x109/L (1) APPEND refers to the mnemonic: A: anorexia P: pa...
Article

Hemorrhage on DWI (mnemonic)

General isotropic DWI signal characteristics of hemorrhage on MRI may be recalled by the mnemonic: Hobbits Love Little Hairy Ladies Mnemonic Hobbits high isotropic DWI signal with reduced ADC values intracellular oxyhemoglobin: hyperacute (<1day) Love low isotropic DWI signal with reduced...
Article

Diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember differentials causing diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI. Bone marrow infiltration is best evaluated on T1 sequences and may be focal or diffuse. Focal infiltration is seen in metastases and lymphoma. The diffuse pattern is seen more commonly in multiple myeloma, mast...
Article

MEN1 triad (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the classic triad of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) are: PPP PiParPanc ParaPanPit Mnemonics PPP P: pituitary adenoma: prolactinoma is commonest P: pancreatic endocrine tumors P: parathyroid proliferative disease parathyroid hyperplasia (most common) pa...
Article

Ivory vertebra (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the differential diagnosis of ivory vertebra is: LIMPH M.PHIL (i.e. Master of Philosophy) Mnemonic LIMPH L: lymphoma (usually Hodgkin lymphoma) I: infection (tuberculous spondylitis) M: metastases (osteoblastic) and myelosclerosis P: Paget disease of bone H: heman...
Article

Sclerotic bone metastasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering which tumors may lead to sclerotic bone metastases is: 6 Bees Lick Pollen Mnemonic B: bone (osteogenic carcinoma) B: breast  B: bronchus (carcinoid) B: bladder (TCC) B: brain (medulloblastoma) B: bowel (mucinous) L: lymphoma P: prostate
Article

Wernicke's Korsakoff (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall some of the important features of Wernicke's Korsakoff syndrome is: COMBAT Mnemonic C: confusion, confabulatory amnesia O: ophthalmoplegia M: mamillary bodies B: B1(vitamin), bariatric surgery A: alcoholics T: thalami, tectal plate, third ventricle
Article

Post renal transplant fluid collections (mnemonic)

Following renal transplant, different perinephric fluid collections tend to present at different times in the postoperative period. These can be remembered in order using the mnemonic: HEAL Mnemonic H: hematoma (immediate) E: encapsulated urine collections/urinomas (1-2 weeks) A: abscess (3...
Article

Solitary filling defect in ureters (mnemonic)

Solitary filling defect with a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU has a few differentials which can be remembered using this mnemonic: CUPS MET Mnemonic C: clot U: ureteric stone P: polyp S: sloughed papilla   M: metastasis E: endometriosis T: tuberculosis, transitional cell...
Article

Multiple filling defects of ureter (mnemonic)

Multiple filling defects within a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU, have a relatively small differential which can be learned using this mnemonic: CUT SLIM Mnemonic C: clots U: ureteritis cystica T: transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)   S: stones, Stevens-Johnson syndrome L: l...
Article

Hydronephrosis (mnemonic)

The causative factors leading to hydronephrosis can be recalled using this mnemonic: RUNS Mnemonic R: retroperitoneal fibrosis U: urolithiasis N: neoplastic mass (cervical cancer) S: stenosis of pelvi-ureteric junction
Article

Cannonball metastasis (mnemonic)

Cannonball metastases refer to multiple large, well-circumscribed, round pulmonary metastases. The primary tumors for these lesions can be remembered with the help of this mnemonic: CRESP Mnemonic C: choriocarcinoma R: renal cell carcinoma E: endometrial carcinoma S: synovial sarcoma P: p...
Article

Drop metastases (mnemonic)

The primary intracerebral malignancies that may cause drop metastases to the subarachnoid space are: glioblastoma (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma medulloblastoma sPNET ependymoma germinoma choroid plexus carcinoma pineoblastoma/pineocytoma These can be remembered using this mnemonic: G...
Article

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (mnemonic)

Two useful mnemonics to remember the features of idiopathic intracranial hypertension are: VOMER MOVES Mnemonics VOMER V: ventricles of normal or reduced size O: optic disc protrusion M: Meckel's cave enlargement E:  empty sella R:  reduced caliber (stenosis) venous sinuses MOVES M: M...
Article

Sturge-Weber syndrome (mnemonic)

Some key findings pertaining to Sturge-Weber syndrome may be recalled using the following mnemonics: STURGE CAPS 8 Cs Mnemonics STURGE CAPS S: seizures, sporadic T: tram track gyriform calcification; trigeminal territory port-wine stain U: unilateral weakness (hemiparesis - contralateral ...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis (mnemonic)

The findings of tuberous sclerosis can be remembered with the help of the following mnemonic: HAMARTOMAS Mnemonic H: hamartomas (CNS, retinal and skin) A: angiofibroma (facial) or adenoma sebaceum M: mitral regurgitation A: ash-leaf spots R: rhabdomyoma (cardiac) T: tubers (cortical, sub...
Article

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis diagnostic criteria (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the diagnostic criteria of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is: THRALL PVC ​Mnemonic T: tuberous sclerosis H: HRCT characteristic or compatible lung findings of LAM RA: renal angiomyolipoma L: lymphatic malformations L: lung biopsy-proven LAM   P: pneumothorax ​V: V...
Article

Germinal matrix hemorrhage (grading mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological grading of germinal matrix hemorrhage is: CV2P  Mnemonic It can be read as a central venous line C: limited to the caudothalamic groove/ germinal matrix ( grade I ) V: expansion into ventricles less than 50% ( grade II ) V: dilated ventricles ( grade...
Article

Bone lesion description (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for describing bone lesions (of any type) in a logical order: All Sensible People Must Make Clear/Proper Sense CAMPS Mnemonics All Sensible People Must Make Clear/Proper Sense A: age (maturity of skeleton) S: site (bone name and location within bone) and size P: pattern of dest...
Article

Lower lobe fibrosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember differentials causing lower lobe fibrosis or predominant lower lobe fibrosis. SAB-IPM IPAS-BM Mnemonic SAB-IPM S: systemic sclerosis and other connective tissue diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) A: aspiration, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, asbestosis B: bronchi...
Article

Small placenta (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of small placenta is: PCI 2 It can be read as percutaneous coronary intervention i.e. PCI 2 Mnemonic P: pre-eclampsia C: chromosomal anomaly e.g. Down syndrome I: intrauterine infection I: intrauterine growth retardation
Article

Sinonasal polyposis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of sinonasal polyposis is:  KIC AAAN Mnemonic K: Kartagener syndrome I: infectious rhinosinusitis  C: cystic fibrosis                         A: aspirin sensitivity A: allergic fungal sinusitis  A: asthma  N: nickel exposure
Article

Z deformity (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the features of Z deformity of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis is: WRD UPP Mnemonic Consider mnemonic to be pronounced "word up" to help remember it. WR: wrist radial deviation  DU: digits ulnar deviation PP: proximal phalanges palmar subluxation See also Z deform...
Article

Lung carcinoma doubling time (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the lung carcinoma doubling time, in order of increasing time, is: SMS LA ​Mnemonic SM: small cell lung cancer - 30 days S: squamous cell carcinoma (lung) - 90 days L: large cell cancer of lung - 120 days A: adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung - 150-180 days
Article

Complex adnexal mass - differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the differential diagnosis of complex adnexal masses is: CHEETAH Mnemonic C: cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma (serous and mucinous) H: hemorrhagic ovarian cyst E: endometrioma E: ectopic pregnancy T: teratoma/torsion A: abscess (tubo-ovarian) H: hydrosalpinx/hematosalpinx (...
Article

Coarse trabecular pattern in bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember differentials causing a coarse trabecular pattern in the bone PHROG Mnemonic P: Paget disease (bone) H: Hemoglobinopathies (i.e thalassemia), hyperparathyroidism R: Rickets O: Osteoporosis, osteomalacia G: Gaucher's disease  
Article

High density GI lesions on CT (mnemonic)

There are several mnemonics to remember the causes of high density lesions in the gastrointestinal tract on CT: CHIPES COINS PIG BEACH Mnemonics CHIPES C: chloral hydrate/cocaine packets H: heavy metals I: iodinated compounds, e.g. contrast media, iron P: phenothiazines E: enteric-coat...
Article

Primary and secondary hemochromatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of hemochromatosis is: P's for primary and S's for secondary Mnemonic Primary hemochromatosis P: parenchymal (liver, myocardium, thyroid and synovium) P: pancreas P: pituitary P: poor liver (organ dysfunction and malignancy) Secondary hemo...
Article

Toxic leukoencephalopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the more common causes of toxic leukoencephalopathy is: CHOICES​ 1 Mnemonic C: chemotherapy (e.g. methotrexate) H: heroin O: other opioids I: immunosuppressant drugs or imidazole C: cocaine E: ethanol or environmental (e.g. carbon monoxide) S: splenial lesions (re...
Article

Epiphyseal lesions (mnemonic)

The differential diagnosis for epiphyseal lesions can be recalled with mnemonics for the most common entities: Chondroblastoma IS AGE-related 1 See the separate article for the full list: epiphyseal lesions (differential). Mnemonics Chondroblastoma IS AGE-related This mnemonic notes the fac...
Article

Five Ts of cyanotic congenital heart disease (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the most important congenital heart defects associated with cyanosis is: 5 Ts Mnemonic T: tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) T: transposition of the great arteries (TGA) T: truncus arteriosus T: total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) T: tricuspid valve abnormalities...
Article

Inferior orbital fissure contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for the contents of the inferior orbital fissure (from medial to lateral) is: Inferior Orbit Gets Infra-Orbital Nerves and VeinZ Mnemonic Inferior Orbit Gets Infra-Orbital Nerves and VeinZ IO: inferior ophthalmic vein (tributary to both pterygoid venous plexus and cavernous sinus) ...
Article

Annulus of Zinn contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the contents of the tendinous ring (also known as the annulus of Zinn) from superior to inferior is: One Canal, Several Orbital Nerves In One Annulus Mnemonic: OC: optic canal SO: superior division of oculomotor nerve N: nasociliary nerve IO: inferior division of ocu...
Article

Typical clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma (mnemonic)

The typical clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma can be recalled using the mnemonic: CRAB Mnemonic C: hypercalcemia R: renal failure A: anemia B: bone disease The CRAB mnemonic can help differentiate multiple myeloma from its precursor diseases - monoclonal gammopathy of undetermin...
Article

Cruciate ligament insertions onto the femur (mnemonic)

The location of the cruciate ligament insertions onto the femur can be remembered with the mnemonic: AEPI Mnemonic AE: anterior onto external condyle PI: posterior onto internal condyle
Article

Abdominal distension (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of abdominal distension (6 Fs) is: F: fat F: fluid  F: flatus F: feces  F: fetus F: fulminant mass
Article

Inguinal region masses (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of an inguinal region mass is: L SHAPE Mnemonic L: lymphadenopathy or lipoma S: saphena varix H: hernia A: aneurysm P: psoas abscess E: ectopic testis
Article

3-6-9 rule (bowel)

The 3-6-9 rule is a simple aide-memoire describing the normal bowel caliber: small bowel: <3 cm large bowel: <6 cm appendix: <6 mm cecum: <9 cm Above these dimensions, the bowel is generally considered dilated, and obstruction or an adynamic ileus should be considered.
Article

1-2-3 rule (ovary)

The 1-2-3 rule is a simple aide-mémoire describing the nomenclature of any small simple anechoic structure in the ovary on ultrasound: <1 cm = follicle 1-2 cm = dominant follicle >3 cm = cyst
Article

Intracranial hypotension (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the features of intracranial hypotension is: SEEPS Mnemonic S: subdural fluid collections E: enhancement of the pachymeninges E: engorgement of the venous sinuses P: pituitary hyperemia S: sagging brain See also intracranial hypotension
Article

Intradural extramedullary spinal tumors (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the differential diagnoses for intradural extramedullary spinal neoplasms include the following: No More Spinal Masses MNM Mnemonics No More Spinal Masses N: neurofibroma M: meningioma S: schwannoma M: metastasis MnM This simplified mnemonic, as in M&M cand...
Article

Intramedullary spinal masses (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of intramedullary spinal masses is: I HEAL Mnemonic I: infarction H: hemangioblastoma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma L: lipoma
Article

Dural tail sign (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember differential diagnoses associated with a dural tail sign is: My Scary Dog Likes To Stand Guard Mnemonic M: meningioma S: sarcoidosis D: dural metastases L: lymphoma T: tuberculoma S: schwannoma G: glioma
Article

Posterior vertebral scalloping (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses for posterior vertebral scalloping is: SALMON Mnemonic S: spinal cord tumor (e.g. astrocytoma, ependymoma, schwannoma) A: achondroplasia, acromegaly L: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (and other connective tissue disorders) M: Marfan's syndrome...
Article

Calcifying pulmonary metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of calcifying pulmonary metastases is: BOBCAT Mnemonic B: bone (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma) O: ovary B: breast C: colon A: any primary post-chemotherapy T: thyroid and testis    Another useful mnemonic is BOTTOM. B: Breast O: Osteosarcoma T...
Article

Interstitial lung disease without volume loss (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of interstitial lung diseases which do not cause volume loss is: LENT Mnemonic L: lymphangioleiomyomatosis E: eosinophilic granuloma (pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) N: neurofibromatosis type 1 T: tuberous sclerosis
Article

Lucent transverse metaphyseal lines (mnemonic)

The differential diagnosis for lucent transverse metaphyseal lines or bands may be recalled using various mnemonics: CAMEL LINING Mnemonics CAMEL C: congenital infection (e.g. STORCH) A: anatomical variation M: metastatic neuroblastoma E: earlier systemic illness (rickets, scurvy) L: le...
Article

Seronegative spondyloarthritis (mnemonic)

 A useful mnemonic to remember the subgroups of seronegative spondyloarthritides is:  PEARU Mnemonic P: psoriatic arthritis E: enteropathic arthritis (i.e. extraintestinal manifestation of IBD) A: ankylosing spondylitis R: reactive arthritis U: undifferentiated spondyloarthritis
Article

Right-to-left shunt (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses associated with right-to-left cardiovascular shunts is: 1-5 Mnemonic 1: a combination vessel; truncus arteriosus 2: number of arteries involved; transposition of the great arteries 3: "tri-" means 3, the number of leaflets involved; t...
Article

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (mnemonic)

Clinical diagnosis requires the presence of at least two criteria to confirm the presence of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) 1. These diagnostic criteria can be remembered with the mnemonic: CAFE SPOT Mnemonic C: café-au-lait spots (greater than six seen during one year) A: axillary or ingui...
Article

Complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema is that the most common ones begin with: pneum- Mnemonic pneumatocele pneumothorax pneumomediastinum pneumoperitoneum
Article

Malunited fractures - most common (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the most common malunited fractures is:  CSI - Miami Mnemonic C: Colles fracture S: scaphoid fracture I: intertrochanteric femoral neck fracture Miami: malunion See also fracture malunion
Article

Crohn disease (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of Crohn disease is: CROHNS Mnemonic C: cobblestone appearance of mucosa R: rose-thorn ulcers O: obstruction of bowel H: hyperplasia of mesenteric lymph nodes N: narrowing of intestinal lumen S: skip lesions
Article

Causes of cone-shaped epiphysis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the causes of cone-shaped epiphysis is: ABCDE MOST Mnemonic A: achondroplasia, acrodysostosis B: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome C: chondroplasia punctata, Cockayne syndrome, conorenal syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia D: dactylitis...
Article

ASCOD classification (ischemic stroke)

The ASCOD classification system 1, published in 2013, aims to define phenotypes of ischemic strokes for individual patients by assigning a degree of probability to each of the most common causes of this pathology. It serves most strictly as a research tool but is also useful clinically as a mne...
Article

Soft tissue nodules in arthropathy (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the differential diagnoses for soft tissue nodules in arthropathy are: RAGS "-oids" Mnemonics RAGS R: rheumatoid arthritis A: amyloid G: gout S: sarcoidosis "-oids" The aforementioned differential diagnoses end in "-oid": rheumat-oid amyl-oid sarc-oid g...
Article

Calcified glial tumors (mnemonic)

In order of decreasing frequency, a useful mnemonic to remember glial tumors which calcify is: Old Elephants Age Gracefully Mnemonic O: oligodendroglioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma G: glioblastoma
Article

Finger clubbing (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember most of the causes of finger clubbing is: CLUBBING Mnemonic C: cardiac subacute infective endocarditis cyanotic heart disease atrial myxoma L: lungs lung abscess empyema cystic fibrosis idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis tuberculosis bronchiectasis mesothel...
Article

Hypervascular metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the tumors which cause hypervascular metastases is: MR CT PET Mnemonic M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma PET: (pancreatic) neuroendocrine tumor
Article

FIGO classification system for the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in non-gravid women of reproductive age (mnemonic)

The FIGO classification system for the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in non-gravid women of reproductive age has a mnemonic at its core 1: PALM-COEIN The "PALM" causes are considered structural and the "COEIN" (coin) causes are considered non-structural. Mnemonic P: polyp A: adenomyos...
Article

Acute stroke symptoms (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the symptoms of acute stroke are: FAST BE-FAST Mnemonics FAST F = face (look uneven?) A = arm (drift down?) S = speech (sound strange or difficulty speaking) T = time (brain cells die every second) BE-FAST B = balance (sudden loss of balance) E = eye (sudd...
Article

von Hippel-Lindau disease (mnemonic)

Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic: HIPPEL Mnemonic: H: hemangioblastoma of CNS I: increased risk of renal cell cancer P: pheochromocytoma P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumors) E: eye and ear dysfunction ...
Article

Carpal tunnel syndrome causes (mnemonic)

Carpal tunnel syndrome results from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. Its causes are numerous and varied. A useful mnemonic to remember the causes is: MEDIAN TRAP Mnemonic M: myxedema E: edema D: diabetes mellitus I: idiopathic A: acromegaly N: neoplasm ​T: trau...
Article

Pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms is: OBALLS Mnemonic OBALLS O: organizing pneumonia B: bronchoalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) A: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) L: lymphoma L: lipoid pneumonia S: sarcoidosis Another consideration i...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.