Glenohumeral joint

Dr Henry Knipe and Dr Jeremy Jones et al.

The glenohumeral joint is a synovial joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid.

Articulations

The glenohumeral joint is a ball and socket articulation between the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the head of the humerus

Due to the relatively small contact area between the two joint surfaces, it is the most mobile joint in the body. The glenoid labrum adds depth to the glenoid fossa that otherwise would have been a shallow socket.

Muscles

The number of muscles involved in movement around the shoulder is vast and a large proportion of them act at the glenohumeral joint. See movements of the arm

The four rotator cuff muscles act to stabilise the joint.

Special structures
Joint capsule

Joint capsule extends from the margin of the glenoid fossa to the anatomical neck of the humerus, incorporating the insertion of the long head of biceps brachii tendon. It is reinforced by the rotator cuff, except inferiorly, where it is at its weakest 2

Bursae

There are many bursae associated with the shoulder but two, in particular, have clinical significance 1:

Upper limb anatomy
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Article information

rID: 24606
Section: Anatomy
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:

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