Hypovitaminosis A results from inadequate intake of vitamin A, fat malabsorption, or liver disorders and produces a variety of epithelial alterations.
The World Health Organization currently estimates that 45-122 countries have a vitamin A deficiency of public health significance based on the prevalence of night blindness and biochemical vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol concentration <0.70 µmol/l), respectively, in preschool-age children.
Night blindness is estimated to affect 5.2 million preschool-age children (33.3% globally) and 9.8 million pregnant women (15.3% globally). Regions of Africa and South-East Asia were found to be the most affected.
- dry and scaly skin
- increased intracranial pressure
- ocular effects
- xerophthalmia (dry eye) - common cause of blidnesss in young children in developing countries
- poor night vision / night blindness
- decreased immunity
- squamous metaplasia
- renal tract stones from pelvic keratinisation
- in infancy
- susceptibility to infection
- cranial nerve injury
- growth retardation
- slow bone development
- widening of the cranial sutures with bulging fontanelles
Treatment and prognosis
Administration of vitamin A given orally or parenterally, if malabsorption is the cause of the deficiency.
- 1. www.merckmanuals.com. Also of Interest. Read relevant article. Accessed on 28/03/2016
- 2. Resnick D, Kransdorf M. Bone and joint imaging. Saunders. ISBN:0721602703. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. www.who.int. Moved Permanently. Read relevant article. Accessed on 28/03/2016
- 4. Pope, T, et-al. Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System, 2-Volume Set: Expert Radiology Series. Saunders. ISBN:141602963X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Ansstas, G, et al. Vitamin A Deficiency. MedscapeAccessed on 28/03/2016