Juxtaglomerular cell tumour (JGCT) is an infrequent renal tumour of the juxtaglomerular cells. These cells secrete renin and often cause severe hypertension and hypokalaemia.
Juxtaglomerular cell tumour affects all age groups, but is most common in adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence in the second and third decades of life. Juxtaglomerular cell tumour has a female predominance.
Patients with a juxtaglomerular cell tumour present with headaches, dizziness, double vision, retinopathy, nausea, vomiting, and polyuria and most of these may be attributed to hypertension or hypokalaemia.
Juxtaglomerular cell tumour is often well-circumscribed, yellow to gray-tan in colour, with a complete or partial fibrous capsule usually observed. Histologically, it consists of solid sheets of closely packed round to polygonal cells.
Imaging findings are variable.
- hypoechoic mass
- variable density with moderate enhancement during late phase after contrast administration
Reported signal characteristics include
- T1: iso-signal intensity
- T2: high-signal intensity
Treatment and prognosis
Complete tumour resection by radical or partial nephrectomy is the best treatment for juxtaglomerular cell tumour. Anti-hypertensive agents can be used to manage hypertension until definitive therapy is planned.
History and etymology
Juxtaglomerular cell tumour was originally described in 1967 by Robertson et al, but first named by Kihara et al. in 1968. Approximately 100 case reports have been published.
On imaging consider other renal tumours such as
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- 3. Kim HJ, Kim CH, Choi YJ et-al. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor of kidney with CD34 and CD117 immunoreactivity: report of 5 cases. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2006;130 (5): 707-11. Pubmed citation
- 4. Rubenstein JN, Eggener SE, Pins MR et-al. Juxtaglomerular apparatus tumor: a rare, surgically correctable cause of hypertension. Rev Urol. 2011;4 (4): 192-5. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation