Lipomatosis of the ileocaecal valve

Lipomatosis of the ileocaecal valve is a benign condition usually detected incidentally during investigation of other conditions. However, it may itself cause certain vague abdominal symptoms and may be missed on preliminary ultrasound unless a high level of suspicion is present.

This condition is usually seen in adults older than 40 years and more prevalent in females.

Non-specific symptoms are present:

  • vague abdominal discomfort
  • constipation
  • cramping
  • vomiting and nausea
  • chronic right iliac fossa pain

Lipomatosis of the ileocaecal valve is characterised by increased fatty infiltration in the submucosal layer. The symptoms are produced in part by recurrent intussusception and bowel obstruction.

Fluoroscopy: barium studies

May show a smooth mass like enlargement of the ileocaecal valve. The lips of the ileocaecal valve are thickened and show nodularity; however, the margins are smooth.

Ultrasound

The ileocaecal valve will appear bulky and hyperechoic on ultrasound. Associated intussusception may be identified if present.

CT

CT establishes this entity beyond doubt. Circumferential thickening of lips of the ileocaecal valve is seen showing fat attenuation.

MRI

MRI is seldom required for diagnosis. However, the lesion shows circumferential thickening with high signal appearance of the ileocaecal valve on both T1 and T2 weighted images and shows loss of signal on fat suppressed sequence.

No definite management is required if asymptomatic.

Surgical resection is done when complications like intussusception and bowel obstruction are present.

Surgical resection is also done in cases of atypical appearance to rule out malignant lesion.

Imaging differential considerations include:

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Article Information

rID: 26723
Section: Pathology
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Ileocaecal valve lipomatosis
  • Lipohyperplasia of ileocaecal valve
  • Lipomatous hypertrophy of ileocaecal valve
  • Fatty degeneration of ileocaecal valve
  • Lipomatosis of ileocaecal valve
  • Ileocaecal valve lipomatous hyperplasia
  • Ileocaecal valve lipohyperplasia
  • Lipomatosis of the ileocaecal valves

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