Nephrotic syndrome (NS) results from loss of plasma proteins in the urine and characterised by hypoalbuminemia, hyperalbuminuria, hyperlipidemia, and oedema. It may be caused by primary (idiopathic) renal disease or by a variety of secondary causes.
Patients present with marked oedema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and often hyperlipidemia.
It may be classified as congenital or acquired:
- congenital 1
- primary: focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; membranous nephropathy
- secondary: diabetes mellitus
- when no cause is identified the term adult idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is used
- systemic lupus eryhematosus reference required
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment of most patients should include fluid and sodium restriction, oral or intravenous diuretics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Some adults with nephrotic syndrome may benefit from corticosteroid treatment, cyclosporin A, although research data are limited. Intravenous albumin, prophylactic antibiotics, and prophylactic anticoagulation are not currently recommended.
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