Recurrent episodes of urinary tract infections
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Intrarenal reflux (IRR) involves intrarenal extension of the vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) into the tubular system of the kidney. This condition is diagnosed by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). IRR is the main cause of renal injury in children with VUR and may result in hypertension and reflux nephropathy with renal scars.