Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tracheobronchial tree
Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the tracheobronchial tree are a type of low-grade tracheal tumour. They are considered to be the second most common primary tumour of the trachea.
They are usually first recognised in patients in their 4th and 5th decades. There is no recognised gender predilection.
Symptoms in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma are usually related to airway obstruction and therefore includes dyspnoea, cough, stridor, wheezing, and haemoptysis.
The tumors may be histologically classified into tubular, cribriform, and solid subtypes 6. The tumours are usually low grade but may occasionally undergo high-grade transformation 7.
There is no association with cigarette smoking or with other carcinogens. 9
Adenoid cystic carcinomas usually arise in the lower trachea. Less commonly they are found in the mainstem bronchi (where carcinoid tumours are much more common), lobar bronchi and, rarely, in the segmental bronchi and extrathoracic trachea.
On chest CT, these tumours have a notable tendency toward submucosal extension and typically manifest as:
- intraluminal mass of soft-tissue attenuation with extension through the tracheal wall, or
- diffuse or circumferential wall thickening of the trachea, a soft-tissue mass filling the airway, or
- homogeneous mass encircling the trachea with wall thickening in the transverse and longitudinal planes
The longitudinal extent of the tumours is greater than their axial extent and the tumours usually involve more than 180° of the airway circumference.
They can be variable in shape ranging from polypoid to broad-based. Their margins are also variable and range from smooth to lobulated to irregular. Intratumoural calcification is rare.
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