Birth trauma relates to those conditions caused by both physical/mechanical and hypoxic injuries.
Birth trauma occurs in ~5 per 1000 births 2.
There are a wide range of conditions related to birth trauma, ranging from superficial and minor injuries through to fatal injuries.
- superficial bruising, grazes and lacerations
- caput succedaneum
- long bone fractures, especially clavicular and femoral
- fibromatosis colli
- skull fracture
- vertebral fractures, in particular of C7 and T1 2
- brachial plexus injury
- congenital facial nerve palsy
intracranial haemorrhage (ICH)
- extradural haemorrhage (rare)
- subdural haemorrhage (most common ICH)
- neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy
- spinal cord injury
Birth trauma may not be readily apparent initially, and may have a delayed presentation. Non-accidental injuries can be considered in the neonate in the correct context.
- 1. Dähnert W. Radiology Review Manual. LWW. (2011) ISBN:1609139437. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Comprehensive Neonatal Care. Saunders. ISBN:1416029427. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Fetal and Neonatal Pathology. Springer. ISBN:1846285240. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Radiology Illustrated: Pediatric Radiology. Springer. ISBN:B00RYRY6N4. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon