Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is a systemic genetic disorder affecting the cerebral small vessels, spine and hair follicles. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pathway and should not be confused with its autosomal dominant counterpart CADASIL - autosomal recessive inherited diseases are usually more severe than autosomal dominant genetic disorders and CARASIL is no exception to this rule.
CARASIL is (after CADASIL) the second known genetic form of ischemic CNS disease caused by non-hypertensive microangiopathy in which the causative gene defect has been identified.
CARASIL is a very rare disease with roughly 50 cases reported, until recently not outside Asia 1. However a recent study has documented it in an European family 2.
The true prevalence is unknown and CARASIL is probably under recognised, since no founder haplotype has been identified 1 and the recently encountered European disease carriers support the theory of a wider distribution 2,4.
Shows cerebral arteriosclerotic changes, most intense in white matter and basal ganglia.
Intense arteriosclerosis is seen predominantly in the small penetrating arteries. Aids in differentiation from other entities are the lack of amyloid deposition and absence of the granular appearance characteristics of CADASIL.
Extraneural changes are less severe and although they include the cutis, skin biopsies are not helpful in establishing the diagnosis.
Mutations in HTRA1 -gene on chromosome 10q (10q25.3-q26.2) are responsible for CARASIL. It codes for the ubiquitary HTRA1 enzyme, which regulates signaling by proteins in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family, which again is essential for multiple critical cell functions including angiogenesis. The pivotal role of TGF-β in CARASIL is hypothesised, but not totally clarified.
Typically patients present in their young ages (twenties and thirties) with
- premature alopecia (most common initial symptom)
- relapsing ischaemic stroke-like episodes with gradually progressive vascular dementia
- not infrequently symptomatic epilepsy (secondary to infarctions)
- relapsing severe low back pain and deforming spondylosis (present in roughly 80% of patients, very early onset noteworthy)
- diffuse homogeneous leukoaraiosis
- ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly, predominantly lateral ventricles
- in ~25% small hypodense areas located in the pontine base (possibly presenting Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract)
- absence of lacunes
- diffuse leukoencephalopathy
- multiple lacunar infarctions in the deep nuclei, most often
May be depicted by x-ray, CT and MRI and are those of
- deforming spondylosis with or without intervertebral space narrowing, located in the cervical and/or thoracolumbar spine
- typical location upper lumbar regions (which is in some contradiction to the sporadic spondylosis)
- elbow or knee osteoarthritis
Treatment and prognosis
As there are no causative treatment options, treatment grossly contains prevention of ischemic strokes. Interestingly treatment with known antiplatelet agents and anticoagulant lacks evidence.
Further goals comprise treatment of dementia symptoms. Genetic counseling is also an important part of primary care.
- sporadic cerebral small vessel diseases (SVD)
- encephalitis subcorticalis chronica progressiva (Binswanger disease)
- primary angiitis of the CNS
progressive multiple sclerosis
- involvement of subcortical U-fibers is less pronounced in CARASIL
- symptom onset in CARASIL is 10-15 years earlier
- migraine and depression are not seen in CARASIL
- early white matter changes in CARASIL are homogenous rather than punctuate as seen in CADASIL
- 1. Fukutake T. Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL): from discovery to gene identification. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011;20 (2): 85-93. doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2010.11.008 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Bianchi S, Di Palma C, Gallus GN et-al. Two novel HTRA1 mutations in a European CARASIL patient. Neurology. 2014;82 (10): 898-900. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000202 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Arima K, Yanagawa S, Ito N et-al. Cerebral arterial pathology of CADASIL and CARASIL (Maeda syndrome). Neuropathology. 2004;23 (4): 327-34. Pubmed citation
- 4. Osamu O, Hiroaku N et-al. CARASIL. Gene Reviews. Last update Sep 11, 2014