Citation, DOI and article data
Carcinoid syndrome refers to a spectrum of symptoms that result from excessive hormone (mainly serotonin) secretion.
Occurs equally between the sexes, most commonly in the 40-70 year age group 3.
Diarrhea is the most common and earliest symptom but others include flushing, right heart failure, pain and bronchospasm 4.
The presence of the carcinoid syndrome often indicates hepatic metastatic disease, usually from a primary bowel carcinoid tumor.
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- 2. Levy AD, Sobin LH. From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison. Radiographics. 27 (1): 237-57. doi:10.1148/rg.271065169 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Siegenthaler W. Siegenthaler's Differential Diagnosis in Internal Medicine. Thieme Publishing Group. ISBN:313142141X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. LWW. ISBN:1451105452. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon