Gnathic osteosarcoma

Dr Pamela Mayhew et al.

Gnathic osteosarcoma is a subtype of osteosarcoma that primarily affects the mandible (horizontal ramus) and maxilla (alveolar ridge, sinus floor, and palate).

  • represents ~6% of osteosarcomas 3 
  • 60% in males
  • has an older onset (~30 years) and a peak incidence: 30-40 years
  • gnawing pain and swelling in the mandible and maxilla
  • sessile gingival swelling
  • 60% are osteoblastic
  • 34% are fibroblastic
  • <10% chondroblastic
Orthopantograph
CT

Described features include:

  • cortical involvement
  • soft-tissue extension
  • intramedullary bone extension
  • calcification of the matrix

Treatment plan generally includes:  

  • preoperative chemotherapy
  • surgical excision
  • postoperative chemotherapy

Osteosarcoma of the mandible has a more favorable prognosis than of the maxilla.

The term gnathic is from the Greek word gnathos "γνάθος" meaning jaw.

As the general differential

  • osteoma: less aggressive appearance
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Article Information

rID: 44051
Section: Pathology
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Gnathic osteosarcomas

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