High bone mineral density
Citation, DOI & article data
A high bone mineral density is one where the bone mineral density (BMD) is usually greater than two standard deviations above what is expected for age. This can sometimes be seen on routine DEXA scan assessment. Some authors advocate a definition of a high BMD where the Z-score is greater than +2.5 to highlight to clinicians the potential for underlying pathology 2.
A high bone mineral density may result from a number of varied mechanisms. It may be associated with conditions with increased fracture risk, or artifacts that themselves do not affect fracture risk but may mask low bone mineral density or in situations where fracture risk may be reduced but other comorbidities may occur.
- for adults: see generalized increased bone density in adults
- for children: see generalized increased bone density in children
- renal osteodystrophy
- hepatitis C associated osteosclerosis (HCAO)
- estrogen implants
- decreased bone resorption
- increased bone formation
- 1. Gregson CL, Hardcastle SA, Cooper C et-al. Friend or foe: high bone mineral density on routine bone density scanning, a review of causes and management. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52 (6): 968-85. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ket007 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Whyte MP. Misinterpretation of osteodensitometry with high bone density: BMD Z > or = + 2.5 is not "normal". J Clin Densitom. 2005;8 (1): 1-6. Pubmed citation