HIV/AIDS (CNS manifestations)

Last revised by Dr Rohit Sharma on 17 Jan 2022

The CNS manifestations of HIV/AIDS (neuroAIDS) occur secondary to a wide range of neurodegenerative, infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic processes. 


Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996, there has been a shift in the epidemiology of CNS manifestations of HIV in Western developed countries, with a decline in the incidence of opportunistic infections 2,3.


HIV/AIDS affects the CNS by one of four mechanisms:

  1. direct consequence of the HIV virus
  2. opportunistic infections
  3. neoplasms in the immunocompromised host
  4. treatment-related complications
Direct consequences
Opportunistic infections
CNS tumors
Treatment-related complications

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: primary CNS lymphoma
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  • Case 2: CMV
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  • Case 3: toxoplasmosis
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  • Case 4: cryptococcus
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  • Case 5: HIV encephalopathy
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  • Case 6: PML
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