Pial arteriovenous fistulae (pAVF) are rare vascular malformations that usually consist of a single dilated pial artery connecting directly to an enlarged cortical draining vein.
pAVFs are distinct from pial arteriovenous malformations because they do not have a nidus and distinct from dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) because they arise from a pial artery rather than a dural artery 1.
These are rare entities accounting for 1.6% of all intracranial vascular malformations 2.
Unlike dAVFs, 80% of pAVFs are supratentorial and typically lie adjacent to the ventricular ependyma or just beneath the brain surface.
- 1. Lee JY, Son YJ, Kim JE. Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2008;44 (2): 101-4. doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.2.101 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB et-al. Transarterial occlusion of solitary intracerebral arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989;10 (4): 747-52. Pubmed citation