Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

127 results found
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2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is at the time of writing (mid 2016) the most widely used classification system.   Classification Hodgkin lymphoma nodular lymphocyte predominance classical Hodgkin lymphoma nodular sclerosing mixed cellularity ...
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AIDS defining illness

AIDS defining illnesses are conditions that in the setting of a HIV infection confirm the diagnosis of AIDS, and do not commonly occur in immunocompetent individuals 2. According to the CDC surveillance case definition 1, they are: Infectious bacterial infections: multiple or recurrent candid...
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AIDS-related pulmonary lymphoma

AIDS related pulmonary lymphoma (ARPL) is classified as a distinct form of pulmonary lymphoma. Pulmonary involvement is a common extranodal site in AIDS-related NHL. Pathology ARPL is typically a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the majority of patients have advanced HIV infection,...
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Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous disease or even considered a constellation of diseases resulting in a deposition relatively similar proteins. It has many causes and can affect essentially any organ system. Epidemiology  There may be male predilection. Typically affects middle aged individuals a...
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Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare, aggressive (fast-growing) form of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. It only accounts for around 1-2% of all non Hodgkin lymphoma. It is one of the more common subtypes of mature T-cell lymphomas.  Epidemiology It can be more common in the elderly....
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Antithrombin III deficiency

Antithrombin (AT) III deficiency (now simply called antithrombin deficiency) refers to a congenital lack of an endogenous anticoagulant called antithrombin. Epidemiology Antithrombin deficiency is considered the least common of the three main anticoagulant deficiencies (the other two being pro...
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Aplastic anaemia

Aplastic anaemia is a rare haematopoietic stem-cell disorder. The condition results in pancytopaenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Most cases are acquired, however there are unusual inherited forms. Pathophysiology Aplastic anaemia manifests as a marked reduction in the number of pluripotent h...
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Autosplenectomy

Autosplenectomy denotes spontaneous infarction of the spleen with resulting hyposplenism. Epidemiology Autosplenectomy is most frequently encountered in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, although it has also been reported in pneumococcal septicaemia 1, and SLE 2. The demographics t...
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BALT lymphoma

BALT lymphoma is an abbreviated term for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. These neoplasms fall under the broader umbrella of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. It is sometimes considered a type of primary pulmonary lymphoma. Clinical presentation Up to half of pat...
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Binet staging system for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

The Binet staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It classifies CLL according to the number of lymphoid tissues that are involved (i.e. the spleen and the lymph nodes of the neck, groin, and underarms), as well as ...
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Bone marrow

Normal bone marrow is divided into red and yellow marrow, a distinction made on the grounds of how much fat it contains. Red marrow is composed of: haematopoietic cells supporting stroma reticulum (phagocytes and undifferentiated progenitor cells) scattered fat cells a rich vascular supply...
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Bull's eye sign: general

There are many bull's eye signs, also referred to as target signs: red bone marrow located in shaft of long bone with central yellow marrow on MRI peripheral plexiform neurofibromas on MRI intussusception: see target sign of intussusception choledocholithiasis: see target sign of choledochol...
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Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that predominantly affects children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. The median age of Burkitt lymphoma is 8 years and it has a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is less c...
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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause an anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. The neurotoxicity could lead to acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology CO poisoning is related mostly with preventable causes such as malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and r...
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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a haematological malignancy.  Epidemiology CLL is considered the most common type of leukemia in the Western hemisphere; its prevalence in Europe and North America ranges from 29-38% of all leukaemias 1. It primarily affects adults ~65-70 years of age 3. ...
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Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a relatively rare clonal haematologic disorder. It is sometimes classified as a type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) but also has features of myeloproliferative disease (MPD). Clinical presentation Can be variable but many patients tend to present wi...
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CNS lymphoma

CNS lymphoma refers to involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary; the latter being more common 3. primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) parenchymal non-Hodgkin B cell type: most common non-Hodgkin T cell type primary CNS involvement...
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Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis

Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) is a form of immune mediated primary vasculitis involving small to medium sized vessels. It may involve multiple organs and can have a range of clinical presentations. Pathology Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins which precipitate when serum is incubated at a t...
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Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5ps) is an internationally recommended scale for clinical routine and clinical trials using FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment respons in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Inclusions FDG...
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Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD) (also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola) is a viral haemorrhagic disease caused by the Ebola Filovirus. Ebola is an extremely virulent virus with case fatality rates of approximately 70% 1. Epidemiology First recognized in 1967 after polio vaccin...
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Essential thrombocythaemia

Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) refers to an acquired myeloproliferative neoplastic state characterised by an expansion of the megakaryocytic lineage, leading to an isolated elevation of platelets. It falls under the group of myeloproliferative disorders. It increases the risk of both thrombosis...
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Extramedullary haematopoiesis

Extramedullary haematopoiesis is a response to erythropoiesis failure in bone marrow. Extramedullary haematopoiesis occurs in haemoglobinopathies, myeloproliferative disorders, or bone marrow infiltration. It  occurs most often in the spleen and liver and occasionally in the lymph nodes. Less co...
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Extramedullary plasmacytoma

Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal  plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%. Epidemiology EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh d...
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Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaem...
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Fetal anaemia

Fetal anaemia can result from many causes. Pathology Aetiology haemolytic disease of the newborn fetomaternal ABO incompatibility fetomaternal rhesus (Rh) incompatibility fetal infections fetal parvovirus B19 infection haematopoetic abnomalities homozygous alpha thalassaemia 7 syndrome...
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Follicular lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is, in fact, the most common type. Epidemiology Estimated to account for ~45% of all NHL cases 1. Higher rates in North America and Europe 4.  Pathology Nodal effacement by closely packed follicles containing small cleaved ce...
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Gastric lymphoma

Gastric lymphoma may either represent secondary involvement by systemic disease or primary malignancy confined to the stomach.  Epidemiology  Gastric lymphoma represents the most common site of extranodal lymphoma, accounting for 25% of all such lymphomas, 50% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas...
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Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans and the most common genetic disease among Ashkenazi Jews. It is a genetic multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within ...
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Graft versus host disease: thoracic manifestations

Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the thoracic manifestations that can complicate haematopoetic stem cell transplantation. Pulmonary GvHD can be broadly divided into acute and chronic disease 1-4: acute pulmonary GvHD pulmonary involvement is rare the median time of onset o...
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H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebra (also known as Lincoln log vertebra) are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1)3. It may occasionally b...
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Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a relative common procedure used to treat a wide spectrum of conditions 1,2: lymphoproliferative disorders, e.g. lymphoma, multiple myeloma (most common indication) leukaemia solid tumours, e.g. neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, extragonadal germ...
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Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: abdominal complications

Abdominal complications of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occur early (0-100 days) or late (>100 days) post transplant.  Complications Early bacterial infections, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis fungal infections, often affecting the oesophagus or as hepatic/splenic microabsce...
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Haemochromatosis

Haemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder characterised by a progressive increase in total body iron stores and deposition of iron in some non-reticuloendothelial system (RES) body organs resulting in some instances in organ dysfunction. This article focus on general principles of hemochrom...
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Haemochromatosis: skeletal manifestations

Haemochromatosis is a systemic disease which affects many organs systems (see the main hemochromatosis article), including the joints, characterised by haemosiderin and calcium pyrophosphate deposition resulting in: chondrocalcinosis: particularly knees and triangular fibrocartilage arthropath...
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Haemolytic anaemia

Haemolytic anaemia is a form of anaemia where red blood cells (RBCs) are destroyed either intravascularly or extravascularly. Clinical presentation The patient presents with anaemia and jaundice. Diagnosis is based on several laboratory parameters 1: reticulocytosis increased unconjugated bi...
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Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a multisystem thrombotic microangiopathic disease characterised by the triad of renal failure, haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. It is the most common cause of renal failure in infancy and childhood requiring dialysis.  There are two forms of this syn...
Article

Haemophilia

Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder which is X-linked recessive and therefore occurs almost exclusively in males. There are two subtypes - haemophilia A (80%) and haemophilia B (20%).  Epidemiology The incidence of haemophilia A is around 1 in 5000 male births, and the incidence of h...
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Haemophilic arthropathy

Haemophilic arthropathy refers to permanent joint disease occurring in haemophilia sufferers as a long-term consequence of repeated haemarthrosis.  Around 50% of patients with haemophilia will develop a severe arthropathy. Epidemiology Haemophilia is an x-linked recessive disease affecting mal...
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Haemosiderosis

Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage. Pathology Some causes include: frequent transfusion  mainly depositional siderosis in RES if >40 units transfused...
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: thoracic complications

There are many thoracic complications that can occur following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These can precipitate during various stages following transplantation and can be either infectious or noninfectious. Complications Early pulmonary oedema engraftment syndrome diffuse alv...
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Hepatic lymphoma

Hepatic lymphoma is a rather broad term given to any form of hepatic involvement with lymphoma. This can be broadly divided into: secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma: most common by far, many tend to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) 1 primary hepatic lymphoma: extremely rare Radiographic...
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Hepatic myeloid sarcoma

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is a collection of immature myeloid cells than can present as a mass (or as masses) in the liver. It is a rare complication of haematologic disease. Terminology Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is also referred to as "granulocytic sarcoma" or "chloroma". Epi...
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...
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Histiocytic sarcoma

Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant haematopoietic neoplasm that has been reported in association with other hematological malignancies (particularly B and T cell lymphomas). Pathology It comprises of tumour cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Location It usually occurs i...
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Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin disease (HD) is a type of lymphoma and accounts for ~1% of all cancers. HD spreads contiguously and predictably along lymphatic pathways and is curable in ~90% of cases, depending on its stage and sub-type. Epidemiology There is a bimodal distribution in the age of ...
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Hypersplenism

Hypersplenism is a cytopaenia resulting from blood pooling in the spleen, and is almost always associated with splenomegaly.  Pathology Aetiology There is an almost overwhelming list, some more common causes are given below 1,3,4: congestive splenomegaly: cirrhosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, por...
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Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a leukoproliferative disorder and refers to a situation when there is an unexplained prolonged eosinophilia with associated organ system dysfunction. The condition can affect several organ systems which includes: heart: cardiac involvement in idio...
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Idiopathic portal hypertension

Idiopathic portal hypertension (noncirrhotic portal hypertension or Banti syndrome) is a term that has been given to portal hypertension occurring without hepatic cirrhosis, parasitic infection, or portal venous thrombosis. Epidemiology Rare condition. More common in India and Japan. Patholog...
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Immunity

The human body regularly encounters harmful microorganisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defences to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as the Immune system. Humans have two types of immunity: innate immunity and acquired immunity. The innate...
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Leukaemic infiltration of liver

Leukaemic infiltration of the liver can occur with several form of leukaemia inclusive of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).  Radiographic features CT Described features are non-specific but include: hepatomegaly periportal low...
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue See also lymphadenopathy low attenuating lymphadenopathy high attenuating lymphadenoapthy
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Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; this includes abnormal number of nodes, or...
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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
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Lymphoma of the uterine cervix

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is generally uncommon and when it does occur tends to present as cervical involvement with added background multi-organ disease rather than isolated primary cervical lymphoma 1. It is often considered part of the spectrum of uterine lymphoma. Epidemiology In the ...
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Lymphoma staging

Staging There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, and the most current, Lugano classification.  Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment response eval...
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MALT lymphoma

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, also called extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, is a type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma.  Epidemiology MALT lymphoma represents ~7.5% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Average age of presentation is 60 years with a slight female predominance ...
Article

Mannose-binding lectin deficiency

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency is a condition that affects the immune system. Epidemiology It may be prevalent in 10-30% of the general population (dependant on the definition used). Pathology Affected individuals have low levels of an immune protein named mannose-binding lectin in ...
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Mantle cell lymphoma

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for ~5% of all NHL. It is a malignant neoplasm of virgin B cells that closely resemble normal mantle zone B cells surrounding germinal centres. Epidemiology They occur in older adults (mean age ~60 years). There is...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep in alphabetic order). A AA alleged assault anaplastic astrocytoma AAA: abdominal aortic aneurysm AAC: adenocystic carcinoma AARF: atlantoaxial ro...
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Mononucleosis

Mononucleosis is the term for infection with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). The infection classically occurs in teenagers and young adults. It usually is diagnosed clinically and with serum lab work, but also may have suggestive imaging findings. Epidemiology Exposure to EBV, but symptoms are often...
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MR liver iron quantification

MR liver iron quantification is a non-invasive means of measuring liver iron concentration, a key indicator in the management of patients with haemochromatosis (primary or secondary). Advantages Apart from being non-invasive, sampling occurs in a large cross-section of the liver, as opposed to...
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Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults arising from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of the plasma cells, and results in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Treatment remains difficult. Terminology Four main patterns are recognised: dis...
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Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. Average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Risk factors HIV/AIDS 3 Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can ...
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Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematological stem cell disorders. It has sometimes been referred to as a preleukaemia or a preleukaemic condition. Epidemiology Its overall incidence is thought to be around 3.3 per 100,000. The incidence in patients older t...
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Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis is a haematological disorder where there is replacement of bone marrow with collagenous connective tissue and progressive fibrosis. It is also classified as a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterised by: extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) progressive splenomegaly anaemia...
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Myeloma: extraosseous manifestations

Extraosseous myeloma refers to any manifestation of multiple myeloma where there is plasma cell proliferation outside the skeletal system. This can potentially affect any organ system and the reported disease spectrum includes: reticulo-endothelial system lymph nodes (considered to be most com...
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Myeloproliferative disorder

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a diverse group of conditions that are characterised by the overproduction of red cells, white cells and/or platelets in bone marrow. There are numerous conditions considered in this group but the most common are:  myelofibrosis polycythaemia vera essen...
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Neurolymphomatosis

Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare condition characterised by the direct invasion of the cranial and peripheral nerves and roots by lymphoma, in the great majority B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It should be differentiated from other non-tumour conditions associated with lymphoma that also affect ...
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Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a type of rare, benign, lymphoproliferative disease. It is most commonly reported affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The presence of gut/mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (GALT/MALT) can be seen in children and young adults as a normal ...
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Non lymphomatous pulmonary lymphoid disorders

There are several non lymphomatous lymphoid disorders that can affect the lung. This implies that they comprise of lymphoid tissue but may not have progressed as far as an overt lymphoma. They include: Castleman disease plasma-cell granuloma lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia angioimmunoblas...
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for all lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin's subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation and prognosis.  See the 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
Article

Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: paediatric example 5: young adult Barium studies example 1: barium swallow example 1: upper GI series example 1: barium follow through example 1: barium enema Ultrasound example 1: normal live...
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Normal hepatobiliary imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the liver and biliary tree and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Liver Plain radiographs liver silhouette: example Ultrasound liver ultrasound example 1 with shear wave elastography liver Doppler ultrasound: example ne...
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Paraneoplastic syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes occur secondary to the indirect effects of a malignancy and occur remotely to the primary malignancy. Symptoms are mediated by cytokines, hormones or immune cross-reactivity. These syndromes can cause a diverse range of symptoms and can affect multiple systems. Epidemio...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). F-18 is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-life of approximately 110 minut...
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Plasmacytoma

Plasmacytomas are a discrete, solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells in either bone or soft tissue (extramedullary). It is a rare tumour that is associated with latent systemic disease in the majority of affected patients. It can be considered as a singular counterpart of multiple m...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
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POEMS syndrome

POEMS syndrome is an acronym for a rare multisystem disorder comprising of a minimum of three of the following features in the setting of a plasma cell dyscrasia: P: polyneuropathy O: organomegaly E: endocrinopathy M: monoclonal gammopathy S: skin changes (including hyperpigmentation and sk...
Article

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are a rare set of diseases characterised by the presence of ≥2 autoimmune endocrine disease. Pathology Three types of PAS have been described.  PAS type I a.k.a. APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy) or MEDAC (mu...
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Primary bone lymphoma

Primary bone (skeletal/osseous) lymphoma (PBL) is a less common manifestation of lymphoma than secondary involvement from disseminated lymphoma. It is rare, accounting for <5% of bone tumours and <1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Terminology PBL is defined as the presence of lymphoma isolated...
Article

Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukaemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumour is detected (see: secondary hep...
Article

Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumours 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma ...
Article

Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) refers to a clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is a much rarer type of pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma o...
Article

Pulmonary leukostasis

Pulmonary leukostasis is a medical emergency that is most commonly seen as a complication of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in blast crisis, and acute myeloid leukemia when white blood cell (WBC) counts are over 100 x 109/L (100,000/microL). It needs to be considered in any patient with myeloge...
Article

Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary. primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evidence of ex...
Article

Rai staging system for chronic lymphoid leukaemia

The Rai staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It comprises of stages 0 to IV and classifies chronic lymphocytic leukemia into low, intermediate and high-risk categories, which correspond with stages 0, I & II...
Article

Reactive vs malignant lymph nodes - ultrasound features

A number of sonographic features are helpful in distinguishing reactive versus malignant lymph nodes. Grey scale features Features that favour reactive / infective nodes over malignancy include: nodal matting surrounding soft tissue oedema Doppler features Doppler examination ...
Article

Reed-Sternberg cells

Reed-Sternberg cells are a classical finding diagnostic of Hodgkin lymphoma. They are giant, multinucleated cells with abundant pale cytoplasm. Reed-Sternberg cells are rare, making up <1% of lymphoid tissue, with the background comprised of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and macropha...
Article

Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually seen as a part of spectrum of multi-systemic lymphoma, however, rarely may be seen as a primary disease. Epidemiology While renal lymphoma has autopsy incidence of 30-60% in lymphoma patients, actual CT diagnosis incidence is ~ 5%1. The kidneys are the most common ab...
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Reticuloendothelial system

The reticuloendothelial system (RES) comprises of a number of tissues: spleen bone marrow liver Kupffer cells
Article

Retrorenal spleen

Retrorenal spleen refers to variant position of the spleen, when its inferior portion lies posterior to the upper pole of the left kidney. This normal variant occurs in ~20% of patients, with the finding more common in patients who lie supine 1. Recognition of this variant is important to avoi...
Article

Rosai-Dorfman disease

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes. Epidemiology The disease predominantly, occurs in young adults with a mean age at presentation of 21 years...
Article

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a very rare genetic multi-system disorder primarily characterised by mental retardation, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, and distinctive facial features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 100,000-125,000 live births 5. Clinical pres...

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