Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

172 results found
Article

2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is at the time of writing (mid 2016) the most widely used classification system.   Classification Hodgkin lymphoma nodular lymphocyte predominance classical Hodgkin lymphoma nodular sclerosing mixed cellularity ...
Article

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder of the bone marrow characterised by the proliferation of the lymphoid progenitor cells. Epidemiology Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the commonest form of childhood leukaemia. It accounts for 80% of paediatric leukaemia cases but onl...
Article

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. Pathology Genetics It is defined by a balanced translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 resulting in fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) on chromosome 15 with the retinoic acid receptor-alpha g...
Article

AIDS-defining illness

AIDS-defining illnesses are conditions that in the setting of a HIV infection confirm the diagnosis of AIDS, and do not commonly occur in immunocompetent individuals 2. According to the CDC surveillance case definition 1, they are: Infectious bacterial infections: multiple or recurrent candid...
Article

AIDS-related pulmonary lymphoma

AIDS-related pulmonary lymphoma (ARPL) is classified as a distinct form of pulmonary lymphoma. Pulmonary involvement is a common extranodal site in AIDS-related NHL. Pathology ARPL is typically a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the majority of patients have advanced HIV infection,...
Article

All-trans retinoic acid syndrome

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) syndrome (more recently known as differentiation syndrome (DS)8) is a condition that can occur with patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia who are on therapeutic all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a normal constituent of plasma....
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare, aggressive (fast-growing) form of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. It only accounts for around 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is one of the more common subtypes of mature T-cell lymphomas.  Epidemiology It can be more common in the elderly....
Article

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder. It is usually defined as the clinical complex of vascular occlusion and ischaemic events occurring in patients who have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Pathology Patients have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies cross-re...
Article

Antithrombin III deficiency

Antithrombin (AT) III deficiency (now simply called antithrombin deficiency) refers to a congenital lack of the endogenous anticoagulant antithrombin. Epidemiology Antithrombin deficiency is considered the least common of the three main anticoagulant deficiencies (the other two being protein C...
Article

Aplastic anaemia

Aplastic anaemia is a rare haematopoietic stem-cell disorder. The condition results in pancytopaenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Most cases are acquired, however there are unusual inherited forms. Pathophysiology Aplastic anaemia manifests as a marked reduction in the number of pluripotent h...
Article

Autosplenectomy

Autosplenectomy denotes spontaneous infarction of the spleen with resulting hyposplenism. Epidemiology Autosplenectomy is most frequently encountered in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, although it has also been reported in pneumococcal septicaemia 1, and SLE 2. The demographics t...
Article

BALT lymphoma

BALT lymphoma is an abbreviated term for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. These neoplasms fall under the broader umbrella of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. It is sometimes considered a type of primary pulmonary lymphoma. Clinical presentation Up to half of pat...
Article

Binet staging system for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

The Binet staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It classifies CLL according to the number of lymphoid tissues that are involved (i.e. the spleen and the lymph nodes of the neck, groin, and underarms), as well as ...
Article

Bing-Neel syndrome

Bing-Neel syndrome is an extremely rare neurological complication of Waldenström macroglobulinemia where there is malignant lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). Epidemiology The exact incidence is unknown, however in one study of patients with Waldenström macroglobuli...
Article

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare haematological malignancy. It was previously termed as blastic natural-killer lymphoma or agranular CD4+ natural killer cell leukaemia. Epidemiology It only represent a very small proportion (~0.44%) of all haematological malignanc...
Article

Bone marrow

Normal bone marrow is divided into red and yellow marrow, a distinction made on the grounds of how much fat it contains. Gross anatomy Red marrow is composed of: haematopoietic cells supporting stroma reticulum (phagocytes and undifferentiated progenitor cells) scattered fat cells a rich ...
Article

Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma predominantly affecting children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. Median age is eight years with a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is less common in adults, accounting f...
Article

Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may result in an anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, with acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology CO poisoning is mostly preventable with common causes including malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and residential fires 9. It...
Article

Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute ili...
Article

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a haematological malignancy.  Epidemiology CLL is considered the most common type of leukaemia in the Western hemisphere; its prevalence in Europe and North America ranges from 29-38% of all leukaemias 1. It primarily affects adults ~65-70 years of age 3....
Article

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a relatively rare clonal haematologic disorder. It is sometimes classified as a type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) but also has features of myeloproliferative disease (MPD). Clinical presentation Can be variable but many patients tend to present wi...
Article

CNS lymphoma

CNS lymphoma refers to the involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary, with a number of special types of also recognised.  primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) intravascular lymphoma MALT lymphoma of the dura 5 secondary CNS lymphoma...
Article

Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis

Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) is a form of immune mediated primary vasculitis involving small to medium sized vessels. It may involve multiple organs and can have a range of clinical presentations. Terminology There are three main types of cryoglobulinaemia which are grouped, as per the Br...
Article

Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5ps) is an internationally recommended scale for clinical routine and clinical trials using FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment response in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Inclusions FD...
Article

Diamond-Blackfan anaemia

Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, also known as pure red cell aplasia, is a rare congenital anaemia that typically presents in the first few years of life as a normocytic or macrocytic anaemia usually only affecting cells of the erythroid lineage 2. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia may occasion...
Article

Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss has a number of causes. T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Given the homogeneity, this appearance can often be difficult to spot as abnormal.  ...
Article

Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD) (also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola) is a viral haemorrhagic disease caused by the Ebola Filovirus. Ebola is an extremely virulent virus with case fatality rates of approximately 70% 1. Epidemiology First recognized in 1967 after polio vaccin...
Article

Eosinophil

Eosinophils (or less commonly acidophiles) are myeloid granulocytes and form one of the main types of white blood cells. Their counts are routinely measured as part of a full blood count. They have important roles in fighting parasitic infections, but it is increasingly recognised that they have...
Article

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a non-specific marker of acute inflammation which is seen in a very wide spectrum of pathologies. In recent years it has been sidelined by the use of C-reactive protein and other acute phase markers but it still has an important role to play in the managem...
Article

Erythrocytosis

Erythrocytosis (or polycythaemia) is the presence of an excessive number of red blood cells in the circulation. It can be primary or arise secondarily to another pathology. Definition Absolute erythrocytosis is defined as a red cell mass which is >125% predicted for sex and age 2. Although th...
Article

Essential thrombocythaemia

Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) refers to an acquired myeloproliferative neoplastic state characterised by an expansion of the megakaryocytic lineage, leading to an isolated elevation of platelets. It falls under the group of myeloproliferative disorders. It increases the risk of both thrombosis...
Article

Extramedullary haematopoiesis

Extramedullary haematopoiesis is a response to the failure of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This article aims to a general approach on the condition, for a dedicated discussion to a particularly involved organ, please refer to the specific articles on:  extramedullary haematopoiesis in th...
Article

Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gland is a rare physiologic compensatory event in many haematologic diseases. For a general discussion on this subject, please refer to the main article on extramedullary haematopoiesis. Epidemiology Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gla...
Article

Extramedullary plasmacytoma

Extramedullary plasmacytoma is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%. Epidemiology EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh decades ...
Article

Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaem...
Article

Fetal anaemia

Fetal anaemia can result from many causes. Pathology Aetiology haemolytic disease of the newborn fetomaternal ABO incompatibility fetomaternal rhesus (Rh) incompatibility fetal infections fetal parvovirus B19 infection haematopoetic abnomalities homozygous alpha thalassaemia 7 syndrome...
Article

Follicular lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) Epidemiology Estimated to account for ~45% of all NHL cases 1. Higher rates in North America and Europe 4.  Pathology Nodal effacement by closely packed follicles containing small cleaved cells without nucleoli (cen...
Article

Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans. It is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase or beta-glucosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within the lysosomes of macrop...
Article

Graft versus host disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the thoracic manifestations that can complicate haematopoetic stem cell transplantation. Pulmonary GvHD can be broadly divided into acute and chronic disease 1-4: acute pulmonary GvHD pulmonary involvement is rare the median time of onset o...
Article

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a relatively common procedure used to treat a wide spectrum of conditions 1,2: lymphoproliferative disorders, e.g. lymphoma, multiple myeloma (most common indication) leukaemia solid tumours, e.g. neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, extragonadal ge...
Article

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (abdominal complications)

Abdominal complications of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occur early (0-100 days) or late (>100 days) post-transplant.  Complications Early bacterial infections, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis fungal infections, often affecting the oesophagus or as hepatic/splenic microabscesse...
Article

Haemochromatosis

Haemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder characterised by a progressive increase in total body iron stores and deposition of iron in some non-reticuloendothelial system (RES) body organs which results in some instances in organ dysfunction. This article focus on the general principles of h...
Article

Haemochromatosis (skeletal manifestations)

Haemochromatosis is a systemic disease which affects many organs systems (see the main hemochromatosis article), including the joints, characterised by haemosiderin and calcium pyrophosphate deposition resulting in: chondrocalcinosis: particularly knees and triangular fibrocartilage arthropath...
Article

Haemoglobinopathies

A haemoglobinopathy is a genetic disorder which alters the structure of haemoglobin 1. The result is reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood to the tissues. Terminology Types of haemoglobinopathies include the following: sickle cell disease (Hb S) sickle cell trait (HB AS) sickle cell...
Article

Haemolytic anaemia

Haemolytic anaemia is a form of anaemia where red blood cells (RBCs) are destroyed either intravascularly or extravascularly. Clinical presentation The patient presents with anaemia and jaundice. Diagnosis is based on several laboratory parameters 1: reticulocytosis increased unconjugated bi...
Article

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a multisystem thrombotic microangiopathic disease characterised by the triad of renal failure, haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. It is the most common cause of renal failure in infancy and childhood requiring dialysis.  There are two forms of this syn...
Article

Haemophilia

Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder which is X-linked recessive and therefore occurs almost exclusively in males. There are two subtypes - haemophilia A (80%) and haemophilia B (20%).  Epidemiology The incidence of haemophilia A is around 1 in 5000 male births, and the incidence of h...
Article

Haemophilic arthropathy

Haemophilic arthropathy refers to permanent joint disease occurring in haemophilia sufferers as a long-term consequence of repeated haemarthrosis.  Around 50% of patients with haemophilia will develop a severe arthropathy. Epidemiology Haemophilia is an x-linked recessive disease affecting mal...
Article

Haemosiderosis

Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage. Pathology Some causes include: frequent transfusion  mainly depositional siderosis in RES if >40 units transfused: t...
Article

Hand-Schüller-Christian disease

Hand-Schüller-Christian disease is a clinically intermediate form of a spectrum of histiocytic disorders, which ranges from acute fulminant to chronic indolent disease. It primarily affects children, less often young adults, and rarely older adults. Hand-Schüller-Christian disease has been desc...
Article

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (thoracic complications)

There are many thoracic complications that can occur following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These can precipitate during various stages following transplantation and can be either infectious or noninfectious. Complications Early pulmonary oedema engraftment syndrome diffuse alv...
Article

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a paradoxical thrombotic state resulting from an immune response to heparin. Epidemiology Occurs in 1:5000 patients who have received heparin, most commonly unfractionated heparin. Pathology HIT is induced by IgG antibodies. Clinical presentation T...
Article

Hepatic lymphoma

Hepatic lymphoma is a rather broad term given to any form of hepatic involvement with lymphoma. This can be broadly divided into: secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma: most common by far, many tend to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) 1 primary hepatic lymphoma: extremely rare Pathology R...
Article

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is a collection of immature myeloid cells than can present as a mass (or as masses) in the liver. It is a rare complication of haematologic disease. Terminology Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is also referred to as "granulocytic sarcoma" or "chloroma". Epidemiology Myeloid s...
Article

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...
Article

Histiocytic sarcoma

Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant haematopoietic neoplasm that has been reported in association with other haematological malignancies (particularly B and T cell lymphomas). Pathology It comprises of tumour cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Location It usually occurs ...
Article

Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin disease (HD) is a type of lymphoma and accounts for ~1% of all cancers. HD spreads contiguously and predictably along lymphatic pathways and is curable in ~90% of cases, depending on its stage and sub-type. Epidemiology There is a bimodal distribution in the age of ...
Article

Hodgkin lymphoma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Hodgkin lymphoma are relatively rare, present in  5-12% of patients at the time of diagnosis. It is relatively more common with the nodular sclerosing subtype. Pulmonary involvement usually indicates stage IV disease.  Radiographic features Bilateral involvement is ...
Article

How you can help build Radiopaedia.org

Contributing to Radiopaedia.org does not need to be a massive commitment. Even a few minutes here and there can make a real difference. This page is a great place to start if you want to get involved. There are many ways to do this: create your own case library and make your existing cases comp...
Article

H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebrae, also known as Lincoln log vertebrae, are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1) 3. It may occasionall...
Article

Hypersplenism

Hypersplenism is a cytopenia resulting from blood pooling in the spleen and is almost always associated with splenomegaly.  Pathology Aetiology There is an almost overwhelming list, some more common causes are given below 1,3,4: congestive splenomegaly: cirrhosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, porta...
Article

Hypogammaglobulinaemia

Hypogammaglobulinaemia is an immune disorder characterised by a reduction in all types of gammaglobulins.  Terminology While hypogammaglobulinaemia means some of loss of gammaglobulins, a total loss is termed agammaglobulinaemia which can occur in as an x linked form - X-linked agammaglobuline...
Article

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a leukoproliferative disorder and refers to a situation when there is an unexplained prolonged eosinophilia with associated organ system dysfunction. The condition can affect several organ systems which includes: heart: cardiac involvement in idio...
Article

Idiopathic portal hypertension

Idiopathic portal hypertension (non-cirrhotic portal hypertension or Banti syndrome) is a term that has been given to portal hypertension occurring without hepatic cirrhosis, parasitic infection, or portal venous thrombosis. Epidemiology Rare condition. More common in India and Japan. Patholo...
Article

Immunity

The human body regularly encounters harmful micro-organisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defences to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as the immune system. Humans have two types of immunity: innate immunity and acquired immunity. innate im...
Article

Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis (also known as glandular fever) is the term for infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). The infection classically occurs in teenagers and young adults. It usually is diagnosed clinically supported by serum testing, but also may have suggestive imaging findings. Epidemi...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its...
Article

Large bowel lymphoma

Large bowel (colorectal) lymphoma is a very rare tumour, accounting for <0.5% of primary colorectal malignancies, ~1.5% of all lymphomas, and ~15% of gastrointestinal lymphoma. Large bowel lymphoma differs from gastric and small bowel lymphoma in clinical presentation, management and prognosis. ...
Article

Leukaemia (CNS manifestations)

Leukaemia CNS manifestations can be divided into those related to the disease itself and those associated with its treatment. Leukaemias are haematologic malignancies in which occur a proliferation of haematopoietic cells at an undifferentiated or partially differentiated stage of maturation 1. ...
Article

Leukaemic infiltration of liver

Leukaemic infiltration of the liver can occur with several forms of leukaemia inclusive of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).  Radiographic features CT Described features are non-specific but include: hepatomegaly periportal lo...
Article

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation lymphadenopathy high attenuation lymphadenopathy
Article

Lugano classification: response evaluation criteria for CT and PET/CT

The Lugano classification recommends two methods of visualization for standing lymphoma: Computer tomography (CT) Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT) Response Assessment on CT   CT uses for the standing of all types of lymphoma (if CT is performed for tumor size measure...
Article

Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement (rarely lymphadenomegaly) is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; ...
Article

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
Article

Lymphoma of the spinal cord

Lymphoma of the spinal cord is an uncommon manifestation of lymphoma. Although lymphoma more commonly involves the vertebral body (vertebral body tumours) or epidural compartment, intramedullary lymphoma may rarely occur.   Apparent intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma may often, in fact, repres...
Article

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is generally uncommon and when it does occur tends to present as cervical involvement with added background multi-organ disease rather than isolated primary cervical lymphoma 1. It is often considered part of the spectrum of uterine lymphoma. Epidemiology In the ...
Article

Lymphoma (staging)

There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, and the most current, Lugano classification.  Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment response evaluation cr...
Article

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG), also known as angiocentric lymphoma or angiocentric immunoproliferative lesion, is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Pathology There is a recognised association with antecedent infection with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV).   It can affect a variety of org...
Article

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (CNS manifestations)

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the central nervous system is uncommon, but represents the second most common site of involvement in patients with systemic lymphomatoid granulomatosis, after the lungs, which are most commonly involved. It is considered one of the immunodeficiency-associated CNS l...
Article

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of lymphomatoid granulomatosis are important since the lung is one of the most frequent sites of involvement in lymphomatoid granulomatosis. It falls under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Pathology Some consider the condition to be midway between ov...
Article

MALT lymphoma

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, also called extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, is a type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma.  Epidemiology MALT lymphoma represents ~7.5% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 60 years with a slight female predomina...
Article

Mannose-binding lectin deficiency

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency is a condition that affects the immune system. Epidemiology It may be prevalent in 10-30% of the general population. Pathology Affected individuals have low levels of an immune protein named mannose-binding lectin in their blood. They are prone to recu...
Article

Mantle cell lymphoma

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for ~5% of all NHL. It is a malignant neoplasm of virgin B cells that closely resemble normal mantle zone B cells surrounding germinal centres. Epidemiology They occur in older adults (mean age ~60 years). There is...
Article

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies. It may occur on its own or in association with other lung pathology. Terminology Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some - with "mediastinal lymph node enlargement", they are not synon...
Article

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder and refers to the presence of an abnormal monoclonal antibody in the blood but the absence of the overt bone marrow and clinical signs of multiple myeloma. Epidemiology MGUS is the most common pla...
Article

MR liver iron quantification

MR liver iron quantification is a non-invasive means of measuring liver iron concentration, a key indicator in the management of patients with haemochromatosis (primary or secondary). Advantages Apart from being non-invasive, sampling occurs in a large cross-section of the liver, as opposed to...
Article

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminology Four main patterns are recognise...
Article

Multiple myeloma (extraosseous manifestations)

Extraosseous myeloma refers to any manifestation of multiple myeloma where there is plasma cell proliferation outside the skeletal system. This can potentially affect any organ system and the reported disease spectrum includes: reticuloendothelial system lymph nodes (considered to be most comm...
Article

Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can be involved but most comm...
Article

Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematological stem cell disorders. It has sometimes been referred to as a preleukaemia or a preleukaemic condition. Epidemiology Its overall incidence is thought to be around 3.3 per 100,000. The incidence in patients older t...
Article

Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis is a haematological disorder where there is the replacement of bone marrow with collagenous connective tissue and progressive fibrosis. It is also classified as a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterised by: extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) progressive splenomegaly ana...
Article

Myeloproliferative disorder

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a diverse group of conditions that are characterised by the overproduction of red cells, white cells and/or platelets in bone marrow. There are numerous conditions considered in this group but the most common are:  myelofibrosis polycythaemia vera essen...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.