Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%.
EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh decades of life, more commonly in men than women.
EMP can involve almost any location outside the bone marrow but predominantly affects the upper aerodigestive tract. Retroperitoneal involvement may occur but is extremely rare. The diagnosis of EMP requires the exclusion of MM.
- hyperamylasemia may be an associated finding
Serum amylase levels may be used as a tumour marker for monitoring tumour progression and treatment response.
CT / MRI
Cross-sectional imaging demonstrates nonspecific, well-circumscribed or infiltrative, homogeneously enhancing soft tissue masses or lymphadenopathy.
There may be a mass effect on other adjacent structures such as vessels, or there may be an invasion of adjacent organs.
Active lesions demonstrate uptake of FDG on PET imaging.
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment of EMP is typically complete surgical resection, sometimes in combination with radiation therapy.
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