Leukocoria (also spelled as leucocoria or leukokoria) refers to an abnormal white reflection from the retina of the eye. Despite its color, the reflection is related to the familiar red-eye effect. Usually, when a light is shone through the iris, the retina appears red to the observer. In leukocoria, the retina abnormally appears white.



The top 4 causes of leukocoria are:

  1. retinoblastoma: ~58%
  2. persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: ~28%
  3. Coats disease: ~16%
  4. larval granulomatosis: ~16%

As with anything, causes can be considered using a surgical sieve approach.


Leukocoria can be seen in the normal-sized eye or associated with microphthalmia.

Article information

rID: 5000
System: Head & Neck
Tag: eye
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Leucocoria

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: Photograph: leukocoria due to underlying retinoblastoma
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  • Case 1: Drusen of the optic nerve head
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  • Case 2: Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
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  • Case 3: Retinopathy of prematurity
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