Ovarian yolk sac tumor
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Ovarian yolk sac tumors, also known as endodermal sinus tumors, are a type of ovarian germ cell tumors.
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Ovarian yolk sac tumor is a rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumor that usually occurs around the second decade of life. It is considered the most common malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary in children 4. The overall occurrence is rare, however.
They are typically well-encapsulated round to oval masses.
- occasionally an ovarian yolk sac tumor can arise from a pre-existing ovarian dermoid cyst
- affected patients have an elevated serum tumor marker AFP
Typically, yolk sac tumors manifest as a large, complex pelvic mass that extends into the abdomen and contains both solid and cystic components. The cystic areas are composed of epithelial lined cysts produced by the tumor or of co-existing mature teratomas. Bilaterality is rare.
Tends to have both echogenic and hypoechoic components 4.
They can be associated with prominent signal voids on MRI 2. Areas of hemorrhage can also be seen.
Treatment and prognosis
These tumors tend to grow rapidly and had a poor prognosis in the past, but now the prognosis has improved with the use of new therapies (platin or carboplatin, etoposide, bleomycin). Early lymphatic spread, as well as invasion, is common.
- 1. Jung SE, Lee JM, Rha SE et-al. CT and MR imaging of ovarian tumors with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 22 (6): 1305-25. doi:10.1148/rg.226025033 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Yamaoka T, Togashi K, Koyama T et-al. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: radiologic-pathologic correlation in four cases. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 24 (4): 605-9. J Comput Assist Tomogr (link) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Choi HJ, Moon MH, Kim SH et-al. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: CT findings. Abdom Imaging. 33 (6): 736-9. doi:10.1007/s00261-007-9355-5 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Levitin A, Haller KD, Cohen HL et-al. Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: imaging evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167 (3): 791-3. AJR Am J Roentgenol (abstract) - Pubmed citation