Seminal vesicle cystadenoma

Last revised by Joachim Feger on 14 Feb 2022

Seminal vesicle cystadenomas are a benign subgroup of mixed epithelial and stromal tumors of the seminal vesicles.

Benign tumors of the seminal vesicles are very rare and so are cystadenomas 1.

Voiding difficulties or hematuria have been reported as clinical symptoms of seminal vesicle cystadenomas 1,2.

The diagnosis of seminal vesicle cystadenomas is established by typical pathological or rather histological features.

Grossly tumors have been described as well-circumscribed with a glistening or smooth surface and a multilocular cystic cut surface 3.

Microscopically cystadenomas of the seminal vesicles are characterized by columnar or cuboid epithelial cells surrounded by a fibrous stroma 1,3.

Immunohistochemistry might express CA-125 but should be negative for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CK20 3.

Computed tomography might depict a cystic or soft tissue mass located between the bladder and rectum arising from one of the seminal vesicles 1-5.

On prostate or pelvic MRI seminal vesicle, cystadenomas have been characterized as multiseptate and well-delineated cystic masses with a well-defined capsule 1,3,5.

  • T1: mixed hyper and hypointense
  • T2: hyperintense with hypointense capsule
  • DWI: lack of diffusion restriction
  • DCE (Gd): delayed enhancement of the tumor capsule

The radiological report should include a description of the following:

  • location form and extent of the tumor
  • invasive features
  • relation to prostate bladder and sigmoid colon

The treatment of seminal vesicle cystadenomas includes laparoscopic or open surgical approaches 1, the first having the advantage of decreased rates in postoperative morbidity, shorter hospitalization and faster recovery than the latter 1. Recurrences may occur on incomplete excision 3.

The first case of a seminal vesicle cystadenoma was probably described by R Guiteras in 1894 2.

Conditions that may be mimicking the clinical presentation or imaging appearance of seminal vesicle cystadenomas include 1,6:

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