Last revised by Ashesh Ishwarlal Ranchod on 24 Sep 2023

Staphyloma is the term given to an eye whose uveo-scleral layer is stretched with uveal protrusion. This focal outpouching has a smaller radius than the surrounding globe. Staphylomas most commonly occur posteriorly, temporal to the optic disc, resulting in myopia.

Patients with posterior staphyloma often present with axial high pathologic myopia 3,4.

Staphyloma is an acquired defect secondary to weakness and thinning of the ocular uveo-scleral layer 3.

  • progressive myopia (or mega myopia) is the most common cause

  • glaucoma

  • scleritis

  • necrotizing infection

  • surgery/trauma

  • radiotherapy

  • inflammation or infection of the corneoscleral lining of the eye

  • increased eye size

  • focal deformity (not as marked as coloboma), usually posterior

  • non-enhancing ocular uveo-scleral layer

  • axial myopia: elongation of the globe without a superimposed smaller radius protrusion, although often co-exists with staphyloma

  • chorioretinal coloboma: defect in the choroid and retinal layer, typically located at the inferonasal quadrant

  • buphthalmos: enlargement of the globe

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: chart - causes of increased eye size
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  • Case 1
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  • Case 2
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  • Case 3: posterior staphyloma
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  • Case 4
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  • Case 5: posterior
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  • Case 6
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  • Case 7: posterior
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  • Case 8: with incidental right petrous apex fibrous dysplasia
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