This article aims to be a collection of articles that represent the central nervous system infectious diseases. There will be some overlap between articles as they are listed and discussed in a mixture of anatomical and aetiological classification.
It is important to remember that “encephalitis” is a generic term referring to an inflammatory condition affecting the encephalon (from ancient Greek enképhalos, “within the head”), which is generally used in medicine as a synonym for the brain.
Additionally, CNS infections can also involve the meninges (e.g. meningitis) as well as the spaces between meningeal layers (e.g. subdural empyema). Though the role of imaging is partly to localise the different CNS tissues involved, clinically the meningeal and encephalic components frequently overlap.
For this reason, the term meningoencephalitis can be used to acknowledge the role of both components in the spectrum of CNS infection/inflammation.
- cerebritis (pyogenic brain abscess)
- ventriculitis (ependymitis)
- choroid plexitis
This list does not intend to contemplate all the possible aetiologic agents involved in CNS infections, but those that are relevant to the discussion.
- herpes virus family
- eastern equine encephalitis
- flavivirus encephalitis
- JC virus
- Nipah Virus (NiV)
- rabies encephalitis
- enterovirus rhomboencephalitis
- CNS tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
- CNS listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
- Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
- CNS nocardiosis (Nocardia spp)
- neurosyphilis (Treponema pallidum)
- CNS cryptococcosis (Cryptococcus neoformans)
- CNS coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides immitis)
- CNS mucormycosis (order Mucorales)
- CNS aspergillosis (Aspergillus spp)
- neurocandidiasis (Candida spp)
- neurotoxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
- neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)
- cerebral malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)
- cerebral sparganosis (Spirometra mansonoides)
- neurohydatidosis (Echinococcus spp)
- cerebral amoebiasis
Diseases that are most likely to have an infectious or postinfectious aetiology:
- Rasmussen encephalitis
- acute necrotising encephalopathy of childhood
- haemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome
- 1. Knauth M, Hähnel S. Inflammatory Diseases of the Brain. Springer Science & Business Media. (2009) ISBN:354076660X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Signore A, Quintero AM. Diagnostic Imaging of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases. John Wiley & Sons. (2013) ISBN:1118484355. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. MBA DMYMD, Zimmerman RD, Grossman RI. Neuroradiology. Mosby. (2010) ISBN:0323045219. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Castillo M. Neuroradiology Companion. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2012) ISBN:145118025X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon