Common variable immunodeficiency

Dr Henry Knipe and Dr Yuranga Weerakkody et al.

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a condition that is associated with an impaired immune system. It is considered the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, and is characterised by recurrent respiratory tract infections.

Clinical presentation

The commonest presentation is that of frequent respiratory tract infections.

Pathology

The exact cause is unknown in at least 90% of cases, while a genetic cause may be present in <10% of cases. The conditions involves:

  • low levels of most or all of the immunoglobulin (Ig) classes
  • lack of B lymphocytes or plasma cells that are capable of producing antibodies
  • frequent bacterial infections
Serology

The following serological abnormalities may be present:

  • serum IgA and IgG: decreased but not absent
  • serum IgM: occasionally decreased
  • circulating T and B lymphocytes: present
Manifestations

It can affects multiple organ systems

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Article information

rID: 39878
Systems: Chest, Head & Neck
Section: Pathology
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)
  • CVID

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