Common variable immunodeficiency
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a condition that is associated with an impaired immune system. It is considered the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, and is characterised by recurrent respiratory tract infections.
The commonest presentation is that of frequent respiratory tract infections.
The exact cause is unknown in at least 90% of cases, while a genetic cause may be present in <10% of cases. The conditions involves:
- low levels of most or all of the immunoglobulin (Ig) classes - hypogammaglobulinaemia
- lack of B lymphocytes or plasma cells that are capable of producing antibodies
- frequent bacterial infections
The following serological abnormalities may be present:
- serum IgA and IgG: decreased but not absent
- serum IgM: occasionally decreased
- circulating T and B lymphocytes: present
It can affects multiple organ systems
- 1. Bondioni MP, Soresina A, Lougaris V et-al. Common variable immunodeficiency: computed tomography evaluation of bronchopulmonary changes including nodular lesions in 40 patients. Correlation with clinical and immunological data. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010;34 (3): 395-401. doi:10.1097/RCT.0b013e3181cad9da - Pubmed citation
- 2. Cunningham-Rundles C. How I treat common variable immune deficiency. Blood. 2010;116 (1): 7-15. doi:10.1182/blood-2010-01-254417 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation