Citation, DOI & article data
Enthesophytes (less commonly, enthesiophytes) are bony proliferations (spurs) that develop at an enthesis, that is at the attachment of a ligament, tendon or articular capsule onto bone. They are oriented along the direction of pull and develop in response to repetitive mechanical stress or a more generalized inflammatory condition.
They may be mistaken for osteophytes and are seen more commonly in patients that have many or large osteophytes (bone-formers) 4.
- seronegative spondyloarthritides
- diabetes mellitus
- diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)
- syndesmophyte: paravertebral ossifications that run parallel with the spine cf. osteophytes which typically protrude perpendicular to the spine
- osteophyte: located at the margin of a degenerative synovial joint
- 1. Vinay Kumar, Stanley Leonard Robbins. Robbins Basic Pathology. (2019) ISBN: 9781416029731
- 2. Wolfgang Dähnert. Radiology Review Manual. (2019) ISBN: 9780781766203
- 3. Clyde A. Helms. Fundamentals of Skeletal Radiology. (2019) ISBN: 9780721605708
- 4. Hardcastle SA, Dieppe P, Gregson CL, Arden NK, Spector TD, Hart DJ, Edwards MH, Dennison EM, Cooper C, Williams M, Davey Smith G, Tobias JH. Osteophytes, enthesophytes, and high bone mass: a bone-forming triad with potential relevance in osteoarthritis. (2014) Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 66 (9): 2429-39. doi:10.1002/art.38729 - Pubmed
- 5. Gibson N, Guermazi A, Clancy M, Niu J, Grayson P, Aliabadi P, Roemer F, Felson DT. Relation of hand enthesophytes with knee enthesopathy: is osteoarthritis related to a systemic enthesopathy?. (2012) The Journal of rheumatology. 39 (2): 359-64. doi:10.3899/jrheum.110718 - Pubmed