Peritoneal hydatidosis occurs secondary to seeding of echinococcosis to the peritoneum, usually secondary to rupture of hydatid disease of liver.
Seeding involves the entire peritoneum and gives appearance of an multiloculated mass.
Peritoneal hydatidosis can be primary or more frequently secondary to hydatid cysts in the liver or rarely in the spleen.
Primary peritoneal hydatidosis is rare. The mechanism of peritoneal infestation in such cases is not clear. Dissemination via lymphatics or systemic circulation has been implicated as a possible route.
Secondary peritoneal hydatidosis almost always from hepatic hydatid disease, and related to seeding from spontaneous rupture of hepatic cyst into the peritoneum or spillage of cyst fluid during surgery. In both instances, depending on the patients immune response, this sudden release of hydatid antigens into the peritoneal cavity can result in anaphlaxis. If this does not occur, and viable organisms are present, then multiple cysts can develop.
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