Testicular embryonal cell carcinoma
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At the time the article was created Yuranga Weerakkody had no recorded disclosures.View Yuranga Weerakkody's current disclosures
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Testicular embryonal cell carcinoma is a type of non-seminomatous germ cell tumor and is the second most common histological type of testicular tumor after seminoma 3.
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Incidence peaks at around 25-30 years.
It may occur as part of a mixed germ cell tumor (more common and may be present as a component in around 80% of mixed germ cell tumors) or very rarely in pure form (2-3%) 3. It has components of primitive anaplastic-appearing epithelial cells. At the time of presentation, it is usually smaller than the seminoma but has more aggressive behavior 3. Aggressive features (extratesticular extension and metastases) are common and associated with poor prognosis 4.
Testicular embryonal cell tumors usually show increased alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and β-hCG levels; however, these tumor markers are mildly elevated in the pure embryonal cell tumors. These tumor marker levels reflect the tumor burden and their elevation is associated with poor outcome 5.
hypoechoic heterogeneous mass lesion with ill-defined outlines and involvement of the tunica albuginea and abnormal outline of the testis 3,4
Ill-defined areas of necrosis, hemorrhage and calcifications 3,4
heterogeneous signal intensity lesion with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis 4
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- 3. Woodward PJ, Sohaey R, O'Donoghue MJ, Green DE. From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. (2002) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 22 (1): 189-216. doi:10.1148/radiographics.22.1.g02ja14189 - Pubmed
- 4. Katabathina V, Vargas-Zapata D, Monge R et al. Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: Classification, Pathologic Features, Imaging Findings, and Management. Radiographics. 2021;41(6):1698-716. doi:10.1148/rg.2021210024 - Pubmed
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Multimodality Radiological Pictorial Review of Testicular Carcinoma: From Initial Staging to Restaging. RRU. 2020;Volume 12:599-613. doi:10.2147/rru.s257243 - Pubmed