Radiation-induced esophagitis is a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the esophagus resulting in both acute or chronic complications:
- acute esophagitis: usually 2 to 4 weeks after radiotherapy start 1 extending within ≤ 3 months after completion of the radiotherapy 3
- chronic esophagitis: > 3 months after completion of the radiotherapy 3
Patients receiving external-beam radiation therapy to treat bronchogenic carcinoma, mediastinal lymphomas, or tumors involving the thoracic spine are at risk 1. The method of radiation delivery (eg. conventional radiotherapy vs. 3D-CRT), the total radiation dose, and the concurrent administration of chemotherapy are variants that may increase the risk for radiation-induced esophagitis 2. Simultaneous treatment with doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) greatly accentuates esophageal inflamation 4.
- acute: dysphasia, odynophagia, and chest pain 1-2
- chronic: pending
The radiation is known to cause cell death via pro-inflammatory cytokines triggered by direct DNA damage. The esophagus mucosa has a high cell turnover and, therefore, is extremely vulnerable to radiation 3. The acute toxicity will manifest as mucosal inflammation, which may complicate with further ulceration or superimposed infection 2. If the inflammation overtakes the capacity of repair of the mucosa, esophageal fibrosis will progressively develop and manifest later with strictures.
Given the superficial involvement in acute radiation-induced esophagitis, most of the cases will show a normal esophagogram. When there is a severe acute esophagitis, fluoroscopy findings may include 1:
- abnormal peristalsis 2
- serrated contour due to wall edema
- granular appearance without discrete ulcers
- mucosal ulceration: multiple, small, and within the radiation portal
- sloughing of the mucosa
- focal luminal narrowing: due to spasm and edema
- perforation or fistulation: rare
In the late phase, a radiation-induced stricture may be demonstrated, characterized by a long stenotic segment of smooth contours correlating with the radiation portal 2.
Both acute or chronic phases may show a focal esophageal wall thickening along the irradiated esophagus 2.
In the acute phase, FDG PET/CT will demonstrate an extensive linear uptake within the irradiated esophagus 2, reflecting inflammation.
Treatment and prognosis
Most of the acute radiation-induced esophagitis tends to be self-limiting in most cases and managed clinically without further investigations 1.
In the acute phase, consider:
- 1. L A Collazzo, M S Levine, S E Rubesin, I Laufer. Acute radiation esophagitis: radiographic findings. (2013) AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 169 (4): 1067-70. doi:10.2214/ajr.169.4.9308466 - Pubmed
- 2. Marcelo F. Benveniste, Daniel Gomez, Brett W. Carter, Sonia L. Betancourt Cuellar, Girish S. Shroff, Ana Paula A. Benveniste, Erika G. Odisio, Edith M. Marom. Recognizing Radiation Therapy–related Complications in the Chest. (2019) RadioGraphics. 39 (2): 344-366. doi:10.1148/rg.2019180061 - Pubmed
- 3. Sarah Baker, Alysa Fairchild. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer. (2016) Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy. 7: 119. doi:10.2147/LCTT.S96443 - Pubmed
- 4. Jeffrey Klein, Emily N. Vinson, Clyde A. Helms, William E. Brant. Brant and Helms' Fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology. (2018) ISBN: 9781496367396
Related Radiopaedia articles
external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)
- conventional (2D) radiation therapy
- 3D conformal radiation therapy
- intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)
- stereotactic radiosurgery
- electron therapy
- particle (hadronic) therapy
- sealed source radiation therapy (brachytherapy)
- unsealed source radiation therapy
- external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)
- complications related to radiation therapy
- acute radiation syndrome
- complications of cranial radiation therapy
- radiation-induced thyroid cancer
- radiation-induced neuritis
complications of thoracic radiation therapy
- soft tissues
- bony thoracic cage
- complications of abdominopelvic radiation therapy
- radiation-induced bone marrow signal changes - MRI