Myxoid degeneration of a leiomyoma is one of the rarer types of degeneration that can occur in a standard uterine leiomyoma. This term is related but not identical to the term myxoid uterine leiomyoma.
While this type of degeneration is generally considered rare. The higher end of prevalence for this type of degeneration has been reported up to 50% of all degenerations 5.
Fibroids that have undergone myxoid degeneration are filled with a gelatinous material and can be difficult to differentiate from fibroids that have undergone cystic degeneration; however, they typically appear as more complex cystic masses. They appear hypocellular with a myxoid matrix 6.
On pelvic MRI, the myxoid material usually demonstrates 2:
- T1: low signal intensity
- T2: usually high signal intensity 2-3 with a peripheral low signal intensity 6
- T1 C+ (Gd): there is minimal or no enhancement 2-3
The above signal changes are present as intralesional change 4 amongst the background low T2 signal of non-myxoid components.
Certain malignant uterine tumours also contain myxoid degeneration and include:
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- 3. Ueda H, Togashi K, Konishi I et-al. Unusual appearances of uterine leiomyomas: MR imaging findings and their histopathologic backgrounds. Radiographics. 1999;19 Spec No : S131-45. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Hamm B, Baert AL, Beinder E( et-al. MRI and CT of the Female Pelvis. Springer Verlag. (2010) ISBN:3642060897. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Dähnert W. Radiology Review Manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2011) ISBN:1609139437. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 6. Elizabeth Kagan Arleo, Peter E. Schwartz, Pei Hui, Shirley McCarthy. Review of Leiomyoma Variants. (2015) American Journal of Roentgenology. 205 (4): 912-21. doi:10.2214/AJR.14.13946 - Pubmed