Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a range of abnormalities.
The highest incidence is seen among sexually active women in their teens, with 75% cases being under 25 years of age. In the United States, approximately 1 million females are thought to be afflicted with PID per year, and nearly 275,000 of them are believed to be hospitalised 7.
More common presentations include acute pelvic pain (of variable intensity), cervical motion tenderness, vaginal discharge, fever, and leukocytosis. Right upper quadrant pain from the perihepatitis in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is possible.
PID is defined as an acute clinical syndrome associated with ascending spread of micro-organisms, unrelated to pregnancy or surgery. The infection generally ascends from the vagina or cervix to the endometrium (endometritis), then to the fallopian tubes (salpingitis), and then to and/or contiguous structures (tubo-ovarian abscess).
It can result from a number of causative organisms:
- less common
PID is usually bilateral, except when it is caused by the direct extension of an adjacent inflammatory process such as appendiceal, diverticular, or post-surgical abscesses.
Imaging features are often nonspecific but are out of proportion to what may be apparent from symptoms. If imaged early (e.g. during the cervicitis stage), there may be no finding. If imaged very late, there may be an adnexal mass-like region with surrounding inflammatory change, and the fallopian tube and ovary may not be able to be distinguished.
Other associated findings include 7:
- soft tissue stranding and infiltration of pelvic floor fascial planes
- thickening of uterosacral ligaments
Ultrasound often only demonstrates ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity or nonspecific thickening and increased vascularity of the endometrium 8.
In the most severe cases, ultrasound may show adnexal masses with a heterogeneous echo-pattern.
Some sonographic signs associated with tubal inflammation include:
- thickened/dilated fallopian tubes
- incomplete septa in the tube
- increased vascularity around the tube
- echogenic fluid in the tube (pyosalpinx)
CT shows a diffusely-enhancing ill-defined pelvic mass, which may be difficult to differentiate from malignancy.
May show an ill-defined adnexal mass containing fluid with various signal intensities:
- T1+C (Gd): the wall and the surrounding tissues may enhance
Treatment and prognosis
Recognised complications of PID include:
- tubo-ovarian abscess formation
- pyosalpinx formation
- adhesion formation with resultant bowel obstruction
- Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
In the absence of complications, pelvic inflammatory disease is often treated conservatively with antibiotics.
fallopian tube carcinoma
- consider in a patient without risk factors for PID and/or a patient in whom a course of antibiotics did not resolve the PID
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- 7. Lalwani N, Patel S, Ha KY et-al. Miscellaneous tumour-like lesions of the ovary: cross-sectional imaging review. Br J Radiol. 2012;85 (1013): 477-86. Br J Radiol (full text) - doi:10.1259/bjr/92819127 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
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Ultrasound - gynaecology
- ultrasound (introduction)
- acute pelvic pain
- chronic pelvic pain
- Mullerian duct anomalies
- ovarian follicle
- ovarian torsion
- pelvic inflammatory disease
- ovarian cysts and masses
- ovarian cyst
- corpus luteum
- haemorrhagic ovarian cyst
- ruptured ovarian cyst
- ovarian epithelial tumours
- granulosa cell tumours of the ovary
- paraovarian cyst
- polycystic ovaries
- ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
- post-hysterectomy ovary
- fallopian tube