Search results for “shoulder”

1,017 results found
Article

Shoulder

Simply put, the shoulder, or shoulder joint, is the connection of the upper arm and the thorax. Comprising of numerous ligamentous and muscular structures, the only actual bony articulations are the glenohumeral joint and the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ). The shoulder allows for a large range o...
Article

Shoulder series

The shoulder series is fundamentally composed of two orthogonal views of the glenohumeral joint including the entire scapula. The extension of the shoulder series depends on the radiography department protocols and the clinical indications for imaging. Indications Shoulder radiographs are perf...
Article

Shoulder ligaments

There are many shoulder ligaments which each play an important role in shoulder joint stabilization to various degrees: glenohumeral ligaments: superior, middle and inferior ligaments, connect the glenoid to the anatomical neck of the humerus and play an important role in the stabilization of t...
Article

Shoulder instability

Shoulder instability is tendency of the glenohumeral joint to sublux or dislocate due to loss of its normal functional or anatomical stabilizers: static or anatomical: articular surface  labrum glenohumeral ligaments glenohumeral joint capsule coroacoacromial arch negative adhesive forces...
Article

Shoulder impingement

Shoulder impingement describes a group of conditions characterized by the entrapment of musculoskeletal soft tissue within the shoulder, which primarily results in pain. The catching of the affected structures may be structural and/or functional in etiology 2. The commonest form of shoulder imp...
Article

Milwaukee shoulder

Milwaukee shoulder refers to a destructive shoulder arthropathy due to deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and identification of these crystals in synovial fluid is the cornerstone of diagnosis. Epidemiology Milwaukee shoulder frequently affects older women, often with a history of trauma t...
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Ultrasound of the shoulder

Ultrasound of the shoulder is a fast, relatively cheap and dynamic way to examine the rotator cuff and is particularity useful in diagnosing: shoulder impingement shoulder instability rotator cuff disorders The examination requires attention to technique and appropriate patient positioning. ...
Article

J sign (shoulder)

The J sign refers to the appearance of the inferior glenohumeral ligament in the presence of humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL lesion) as well as in the less common glenoid avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (GAGL lesion). Radiographic features MRI The normal U-shaped inf...
Article

Shoulder radiograph protocol

A shoulder radiograph protocol will depend on the age of the patient, and on whether the indication is because of trauma. Best practice is to have 2 orthogonal views of any bone or joint, so an AP and lateral film are obtained. The anatomy of the shoulder and the position required to acquire th...
Article

Shoulder arthroplasty (overview)

Shoulder arthroplasties are a common procedure, being third in joint replacements after knees and hips, and are used to treat a number of conditions, although the most common indication is osteoarthritis 1. There are a number of types of shoulder arthroplasties: anatomic total shoulder arthropl...
Article

Imaging the shoulder

Imaging the shoulder is often reliant on multi-modality imaging. The shoulder is a complex ball-and-socket joint that relies on the structural integrity of the glenoid labrum and accompanying shoulder ligaments and rotator cuff muscles to function. Acute trauma may result in bony, labral, ligam...
Article

Shoulder injection (disambiguation)

Shoulder injection is a general term, especially for the patient, for a variety of procedures including: acromioclavicular joint injection glenohumeral joint injection glenohumeral (shoulder) arthrography glenohumeral (shoulder) hydrodilatation long head of biceps tendon sheath injection s...
Article

Shoulder dislocation (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Shoulder dislocation is defined as the humeral head moving out of the glenoid fossa. It is almost always traumatic in etiology. Reference article This is a summary article. For more information, you can read a more in-dep...
Article

Shoulder girdle radiography

The radiography of the shoulder girdle is a commonly requested plain radiographic examination; the particular radiographic series will be dependent on the suspected pathology or injury. The extent of each series is determined by the radiography department protocols. Radiographic series shoulde...
Article

Shoulder dislocation

The shoulder dislocation (more accurately termed a glenohumeral joint dislocation) involves separation of the humerus from the glenoid of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. This article contains a general discussion on shoulder dislocation. For specific dislocation types please refer to the...
Article

Shoulder (AP view)

The shoulder AP view is a standard projection that makes up the two view shoulder series. The projection demonstrates the shoulder in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire clavicle and scapula, as well as the glenohumeral, acromioclavicular ...
Article

Shoulder (Garth view)

The Garth view of the shoulder is a projection used in trauma when evaluating the glenohumeral joint for dislocations and trauma to the glenoid of the scapula; this projection is often used as a replacement to the lateral scapula view in trauma. It is an optimal projection to demonstrate Bankar...
Article

Anterior shoulder dislocation

Anterior shoulder dislocation is by far the commonest type of dislocation and usually results from forced abduction, external rotation and extension 1.  Epidemiology Broadly speaking, anterior shoulder dislocations occur in a bimodal age distribution. The first, and by far the more prevalent a...
Article

Dystocia of shoulder

Shoulder dystocia (SD) refers to the failure of the shoulder to be delivered during childbirth and the need for extra-obstetric maneuvers to facilitate their passage after normal smooth gentle downward traction has failed. Dystocia literally means difficult labor. Epidemiology The incidence of...
Article

Shoulder bursae

Shoulder bursae refers to sacs surrounding the shoulder joint that are filled with synovial fluid. As with bursae in general, they facilitate movement and reduce friction reduces friction at tendon-tendon and tendon-bone interfaces.  There are five main bursae around the shoulder. They include:...

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